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FLORUS.

Epit. xvii.; Zonar. viii. 11 ; Polyb. i. 24 ; Oros. 1, 24 ; Fast. Triumph.) [W. B. D.]

FLORUS, L. AQUI'LLIUS, a triumvir of the mint under Augustus, whose name occurs on several coins, which are figured below. The ob­verse of the first represents the head of Augustus,

and the reverse a flower. The second and third refer to the conquest of Armenia and the recovery of the Roman standards from the Parthians in b. c. 20. The obverse of the second has on it a helmeted head of a female, and the reverse Armenia as a suppliant, kneeling down with outstretched hands, with the legend caesar divi F. armb. capt.

The obverse of the third has a head of the sun, and the reverse a Parthian on his knees, presenting a standard, with the legend caesar avgvstvs sign. rece. The obverse of the fourth coin is

the same as the second ; the reverse, from the elephants, seems to refer to the same conquests in the East. (Eckhel, vol. v. pp. 142, 143, vol. vi. pp. 94—99.)

FLORUS, DOMI'TIUS, who had been ejected from the senate through the influence of Plautianus,* was restored in the reign of Macrinus, and created tribune of the people. (Dibn Cass. Ixxviii. 22.)

FLORUS, GE'SSIUS, a native of Clazomenae, succeeded Albinus as procurator of Judaea, a. d. ,64—65. He owed his appointment to the influ­ence of his wife Cleopatra with the empress Pop-paea. The government of Albinus had been op­pressive, but the conduct of Floras caused the Jews to regard it with comparative regret. Without pity or shame, equally crafty and .cruel, Florus was a systematic plunderer of his province. No gains were too petty, no extortion was too enormous for him. His ravages extended to whole districts, as well as to particular cities and persons: exile was

FLORUS.

preferable to his government; and the banditti who infested Judaea purchased impunity by sharing their booty with the procurator. Josephus (Antiq. xviii. 1, § 6, xx. 11, § 1, B. J. ii. 14), whom Tacitus confirms (Hist. v. 10), expressly attributes the last war of the Jews with Rome to Florus, and says that he purposely kindled the rebellion in orider to cover the enormities of his government. At Caesareia, where in a. d. 65—66, in the second year of FlorusV administration, the insurrection broke out, the Jewish citizens bribed him with eight talents, to secure them ingress into their own synagogue. Florus took the money, and imme­ diately quitted Caesareia, abandoning the Jews to the insults and fury of the Greek population. Jew­ ish deputies sent from Caesareia to Sebaste, to claim their purchased protection, were thrown into prison by Florus. He abstained from nothing which even the worst of his predecessors had respected. At one time he demanded 17 talents from the temple- treasury in " Caesar's name ;" and twice within a few days he excited a tumult, and ordered a massacre at Jerusalem, in which 3600 persons perished, merely to afford him, amidst the con­ fusion, an opportunity of plundering the Temple. The attempt failed, but on this occasion he pub­ licly scourged and impaled Roman citizens of equestrian rank, but Jewish birth, although Bere­ nice, of the Asmonaean race, and sister of Agrippa II. [berenice, 2 ; agrippa herodes, 2], stood barefooted and in mourning beside his tribunal, supplicating for her countrymen. At the feast of the Passover, April, a. d. 65, three millions of Jews petitioned Cestius Gallus [gallus], the proconsul of Syria, against the tyranny of Festus. But the only redress they obtained was a faint promise of milder treatment, while Florus stood at the proconsul's side, deriding the suppliants, and on his departure ostentatiously escorted him from Jerusalem to Antioch. Hatred to Florus, rather than to Rome, rendered all Agrippa's efforts in a. d. 66, to prevent the rebellion of the Jews in­ effectual, and, after it broke out, all parties repre­ sented Florus as its principal cause. It is doubt­ ful whether Florus perished in the insurrection or escaped. His death is recorded by Suetonius (Vespas. 4; Oros. vii. 9), but not implied by Josephus (Vita, 6). (Tacit., Joseph. II. «?., and Antiq. xiv. 9, § 2, xx. 9, § 5, B. J. ii. 15, '§ 1, ib. 16, § 1 ; Sulpic. Sev. Sacr. Hist. ii. 42 ; Euse- bius, Chronicon. lxvi.) He is sometimes called Festus and Cestius Florus. [W. B. D.]

FLORUS, JU'LIUS, addressed by Horace in two epistles (i. 3, ii. 2), was, as we learn from the poet, attached to the suite of Claudius Tiberius Nero, when that prince was despatched by Augus­tus to place Tigranes upon the throne of Armenia. He was, moreover, according to Porphyrion, the author of satires, or rather, it would seem, the editor of extracts from the satirical works of En-nius, Lucilius, and Varro. It is not improbable that he is the Florus, mentioned as a pupil of M. Porcius Latro by Seneca (Controv. iv. 25), who quotes a passage from one of his pieces, apparently a declamation, entitled Flamininus. We may perhaps identify both with the Julius Florus whom Quintilian (x. 3. § 13) places in the foremost rank among the orators of Gaul, since he eventually practised his profession in that country (quoniam ibi demum earn (sc. eloquentiam) exercuii)., and it is not impossible that all three are one and the

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