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on account of its style and its subject. (Plin. Epist. y. 5.) [L. S.] FA'NNIUS CAE'PIO. [caepio.] FA'NNIUS CHAE'REAS. [chaereas.] FA'NNIUS QUADRA'TUS. [quadrat us.] ' FA'SCELIS, a surname of Diana in Italy, which she was believed1 to have received from the circumstance of Orestes having brought her image from Tauris in a bundle of sticks (fastis, Serv. ad Aen. ii. 116 ; Solin. i. 2 ; Sil. Ital. xiv. 260). ^Fascelis, however, is probably a corruption, for the purpose of making it allude to the story of Orestes bringing her image from Tauris : the original form of the name was probably Facelis or Facelina (from ,/»#), as the goddess was generally repre sented with a torch in her hand. [L. S.]
FASCINUS, an early Latin divinity, and identical with Mutinus or Tutinus. He was wor shipped as the protector from sorcery, witchcraft, and evil daemons ; and represented in the form of a phallus, the genuine Latin for which iafascimtm, this symbol being believed to be most efficient in averting all evil influences. He was especially invoked to protect women in childbed and their . offspring (Plin. Hist. Nat. xxviii. 4, 7); and women wrapt up in the toga praetexta used to offer up sacrifices in the chapel of Fascinus. (Paul. Diac. p. 103.) His worship was under the care of the Vestals ; and generals, who entered the city in triumph, had the symbol of Fascinus fastened under their chariot, that he might protect them from envy (medicus invidiae), for envy was be lieved to exercise an injurious influence on those who were envied. (Plin. I. c.) It was a custom with the Romans, when they praised any body, to add the word praefiscine or praefiscini, which seems to have been an invocation of Fascinus, to prevent the praise turning out injurious to the person on whom it was bestowed. [L. S.] • FASTI'DIUS, a British bishop placed, as to time, by Gennadius, between Cyril of Alexandria and Theodotus of Ancyra. One tract by this au thor, entitled De Vila Christiana^ is still extant, but was long ascribed to St. Augustin, or to some un known writer,'until restored to its lawful owner by Holsteniusj who published an edition at Rome in 1663, from an ancient MS. in the monastery of Monte Casino. It will be found in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland (vol. ix. p. 481) and a dis: cussion upon Fastidius himself in the Prolegomena (p. xxix.). Gennadius ascribes to him another work, De Viduitate Servanda^ which, however, was perhaps incorporated in the piece mentioned above, which contains a chapter De Triplici Vidui tate.' [W. R.J
M. FAU'CIUS, a native of Arpinura, of equestrian rank, at Rome. His life would be undeserving record but for its connection with a letter of Cicero's (Fam. xiii. 11), which incidentally throws light upon the local government and circumstances of the municipium of Arpinum, the 'birth pi ace, of Marius and Cicero. The Arpinatian community possessed estates in Cisalpine Gaul, the rents of which were their only fund for the repair of their temples and the cost of their sacrifices and festivals. Faucius was one of three commissioners sent to recover the dues of his municipium, which the date of the letter, B. c. 46, renders it not improbable that the civil wars had caused to be withheld. Cicero recommends Faucius and the other commissioners to M. Brutus, who was j
praetor of Cisalpine Gaul. It appears from the letter that the only magistracy in Arpinum was an aedileship, and this fact adds to our acquaintance with the internal government of Italy under the dominion of Rome. Thus, Lavinium had a dic tator (Cic. pro Mil. 10), Tusculum a dictator (Liv. iii. 18); Corfinium, Duumviri (Caesar, B. C. i. 23) ; Neapolis, Cumae, Larinum, Quatuorviri (Cic. ad Att. x. 13,/>n> Cluent. 8) ; Sidicinum and Feren- tum a quaestor. (Gell. x. 3). For the Faucia Curia see Liv. ix. 38. [W. B. D.]
FAVENITNUS, CLAU'DIUS, a centurion dismissed with ignominy by the emperor Galba from the service, who afterwards, a.d. 69, by ex hibiting forged letters, induced the fleet at Mise- num to revolt from Vitellius to Vespasian. (Tac. Hist. iii. 57.) From his influence with the fleet, Faventinus may have been one of the classiarii milites, or legio classica, whom Nero, a. p. 68, drafted from the seamen, and Galba reduced to their former station. (Suet. Galb. 12; Plut. Galfc 15; Tac. Hist. i. 6, 31, 37; Dion Cass. Ixiv. 3.) [W.B.D.]
FAULA or FAUNA was, according to some, a concubine of Heracles in Italy ; while, according to others, she was the wife or sister of Faunus. Latinus, who is called a son of Heracles by a concubine, was probably considered to be the son of Faula ; whereas the common tradition describes him as a son of Faunus. Faula was identified by some of the ancients with the Greek Aphrodite. (Verr. Flacc.'-ap; Lactant. deFals. Reliy. i. 20, Inst. Ep. ad Pentad. 20 ; -comp; faunus.) [L. S.]
FAUNUS, the son of Picus and father of Latinus, was the third -in the series of the kings of the Laurentes. In his reign Faunus, like his two predecessors, Picus and Saturn, had promoted agriculture and the breeding of cattle among his subjects, and also distinguished himself as a hunter. (Plin. H. N. ix. 6 ; Propert. iv. 2. 34.) In his reign likewise the Arcadian Evander and Heracles were believed to have arrived in Latium. (Plut. ParalL Gr. ei Rom. 38.) Faunus acts a very prominent part in the mythical history of Latium, for, independent of what he did for agriculture, he was regarded as one of the great founders of the religion of the country ; hence Lactantius (i. 24, § 9) places him on an equality with Numa. He was therefore in later times worshipped in two distinct capacities : first, as the god of fields and shepherds, and secondly, as an oracular and prophetic divinity. The festival of the Faunalia, which was celebrated on the 5th of December, by the country people, with great feasting and merriment, had reference to him as the god of agriculture and cattle. (Horat. Carm. iii. 18.) As a prophetic god, he was believed to reveal the future to man, partly in dreams, and partly by voices of unknown origin. (Virg. Aen. vii. 81, &c. ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 2, iii. 6, de Divin. i. 45.) What he was in this respect to the male sex, his wife Fauna or Faula was to the female, whence they bore the surnames Fatuus9 Fatua, or Fatuellus, Faiudla^ derived from fari, fatum. (Justin, xliii. 1; Lactant. i. 22.) They are said to have given their oracles in Saturnian verse, whence we may perhaps infer that there existed in Latium collections of oracles in this metre. (Varro, de L. L. vii. 36.) The places where such oracles were given were sacred groves, one near Tibur, around the well Albunea, and another on the Aventine, near Rome. (Virg. /. c. ; Ov.