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EUTYCHES;

was first warned of his error privately by Eusebius, fyishop of Dorylaeum, an$ was then denounced by him as .a heretic, before a synod which assembled at Constantinople, under the presidency of Flavian, patriarch of that city. He was condemned, in spite of the extent of his influence at court, where Chrysaphius, eunuch and chief chamberlain to Theodosius II., was a close friend of Dioscurus, and godson to Eutyches. Besides this, Chrysa­phius had a strong desire to crush the partisans of Pulcheria, the emperor's sister, who was warmly attached to Flavian. By his influence Theo­dosius was persuaded to declare himself dissatis­fied with the decision of Flavian's synod, and to refer the matter to a general council, to meet at Ephesus, a. d. 449, under the presidency of Dio-scums. This is the celebrated tyvrpucr) ffvvoi^os^ an appellation which it most richly deserved. It was composed almost entirely of partisans of Eu­tyches. Flavian, and those who had judged him on the former occasion, though allowed to be present, were not to be suffered to vote. Theodoret, the historian, who had been a friend of Nestorius, was not to vote without the permission of Dioscurus ; and a number of frantic Egyptian monks accompa­nied their abbot, Barsumas, to whom, as a vigorous opponent of Nestorius, a seat and vote in the council were assigned. For the emperor had avowed, in his letters of convocation, that his great object was Ttacrav 5taj8oAiK?}i/ e/c/coij/at. p(£*ap, meaning by this phrase the Nestorian doctrines. When the council met, all opponents of Eutyches were silenced by the outcries of the monks, the' threats of the soldiers who were admitted to hear the deliberations, and the overbearing violence of the president, Flavian, Eusebius, and Theodoret were deposed, and the doctrines of Eutyches for­mally sanctioned ; and this was regarded as a vic­tory gained over the Eastern church by its Alex­andrian rival, which two bodies often came into conflict from the different dogmatical tendencies prevalent in each. The deposed prelates, however, applied for aid to Leo the Great, bishop of Rome, who had been himself summoned to the council, but, instead of appearing there, had sent Julius, bishop of Puteoli, and three other, legates, from whom therefore he obtained a correct account of the scenes which had disgraced it. He was ready to interfere, both on general grounds, and from the notion, which had already begun to take root, that to him, as the successor of St. Peter, belonged a sort of oversight over the whole church. Things were changed too at Constantinople : Chrysaphius was disgraced and banished, and Pulcheria restored to her brother's favour. In the year 450, Theodo­sius II. died; Pulcheria married Marciari, and pro­cured for him the succession to the throne. A new general council was summoned at Nicaea, and af­terwards adjourned to Chalcedon, a. d. 451, which 630 bishops attended. The proceedings were not altogether worthy of a body met to decide on such subjects; yet, on the whole, something like deco­rum was observed. The result was that Dioscurus and Eutyches were condemned, and the doctrine of Christ in one person and two natures finally declared to be the faith of the church. We know nothing of the subsequent fate of Eutyches, except that Leo wrote to beg Marcian and Pulcheria to send him into banishment, with what success does not appear. There are extant a confession of faith presented by Eutyches to the council of Ephesus

EUTYCHIUS.

(the ftov\ri A?7(rt/Ji«7)),and two petitions to the em­peror Theodosius (Concil. vol. iv. pp. 134,241, 250) ; but no works of his are in existence. This schism was continued among the monks by Eudo-cia, widow of Theodosius, and to such an extent, that Marcian was obliged to send an armed force to put it down. The followers of Eutyches, however, under the name of Monophysites, continued to pro­pagate their opinions, though with little success, till the 6th century, when a great revival of those doc­trines took place under the auspices of Jacob Bara-daeus, who died bishop of Edessa, A. d, 588. From him they were called Jacobites, and under this title still constitute a very numerous church, to which the Armenians and Copts belong. (Evagrius, Hist. Eccles. i. 9; Theodoret, Ep. 79, 82, 92, &c.; Cave, Script. Eccles, Hist. Lit. vol. i. j Neander, Kirchengesch. iii. p. 1079, &c.) [G. E. L. C.]

EUTYCHIANUS. [comazon.]

EUTYCHIANUS (Ej™x«w<k). There are two persons of this name in the history of Con­ stantinople : the one is called an historian, and must have lived at the time of Constantine the Great. He is styled chief secretary of the emperor, and a sophist; but nothing further is known. (Georg. Codirius, Select, de Orig. Constant. 17.) The second was a friend of Agathius the historian, who undertook to write the history of his own time on the advice of Eutyehianus. (Agath. Prooem.) [L. S.]

EUTYCHIANUS (Ejrux^os), a physician who lived probably in or -before the fourth century after Christ, as one of his medical formulae is quoted by Marcellus Empiricus (De Medicam. c. 14. p. 303), who calls him by the title of " Ar-chiater." He may perhaps be the same physician who is called Terentius Eutyehianus by Theodo-rus Priscianus (De Medic, iv. 14.) [W. A..G.]

EUTYCHIDES, T. CAECI'LIUS,a freedman of Atticus. After his manumission by Atticus, his name naturally was T. Pomponius Eutychides; but when Atticus was adopted by Q. Caecilius, his freedman also altered his name into T. Caecilius Eutychides. (Cic. ad Ait. iv. 15.) [L. S.]

EUTYCHIDES (EJrux^s). 1. Of Sicyon, a statuary in bronze and marble, is placed by Pliny at 01. 120, b. c. 300. (xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) He was a disciple of Lysippus. (Paus. vi. 2. § 4.) He made in bronze a statue of the river Eurotas, " in quo artem ipso amne liquidiorem plurimi dixere '* (Plin. /. c. § 16), one of the Olympic victor Timos-thenes, of Elis, and a highly-prized statue of Fortune for the Syrians on the Orontes. (Paus.

I. c.) There is a copy of the last-named work in the Vatican Museum. (Visconti,Mws. Pio.^Clem. t. iii. tab. 46.) His statue of Father Liber, in the collection of Asinius Pollio, was of marble. (Plin. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 10.) A statue of Priapus is men­tioned in the Greek Anthology (Brunck, Anal. ii. p. 311; Jacobs, iii. p. 24, No. xiv.) as the work of Eutychides, but it is not known whether Euty­chides of Sicyon is meant. Cantharus of Sicyon was the pupil of Eutychides. [cantharus.]

2. A painter of unknown time and country. He painted Victory driving a biga. (Plin, xxxv,

II. s. 40. § 34.)

3. A sculptor, whose name occurs in a sepulchral epigram in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. iii. p. 307 ; Jacobs, vol. iv. p. 274, No, dccxix.) [P. S.]

EUTYCHIUS, the grammarian. [eutyches.]

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