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hence usually designated Paulus Diaconus. Paul, however, did publish an edition of Eutropius, whom he expanded at both extremities, affixing several chapters to the commencement and bring­ing down the work to his own times, while by others it was continued as low as the year 813.

Thus at the revival of literature, the history of Eutropius existed under three forms: 1. The genuine ten books as they - proceeded from the author. 2. The editions as extended by Paullus Diaconus and others. 3. The entire but largely 'interpolated copy contained in the Historia Miscella*

The Editio Princeps, which was printed at Rome, 4to., 1471, together with all the other editions which appeared during the 15th century, belong to one or other of the last two denominations. The first attempt to restore the pure original text was by Egnatius, in his edition printed at Venice in 1516, along with Suetonius and Aurelius Victor. But the great restorer of Eutropius was Schonhovius, a canon of Bruges, who published an edition from the Codex Gandavensis at Basle, 8vo., 1546 and 1552; further improvements were made by Vinetus (Pictav. 8vo. 1554), who made use of a Bourdeaux MS.; by Sylburgius, in the third volume of his Scriptt. histor. Rom. (fol. Franc. 1588), aided by a Fulda MS.; and by Merula (Lug. Bat. Elz. 8vo. 1592).

. Of the very numerous editions which have ap­peared since the close of the 16th century, the most notable are those of Hearne, Oxon. 8vo. 1703; of Havercamp, with a copious collection of com­mentaries, Lug. Bat. 8vo. 1729 ; of Gruner, Coburg. Uvo. 1752 and 1768; of Verheyk, with voluminous notes, Lug. Bat. 8vo. ] 762 and 1793; of Tzschucke, containing a new revision of 'the text, an excellent dissertation, together with good critical and expla* natory .observations, 8vo. Lips. 1796, and again improved in 1804; and of.Grosse, Hall. 8vo. 1813; Hanov. 1816; Lips. 1825. On the whole, the most useful for the student are those of Tzschucke and Grosse.

Eutropius was twice translated into Greek. One of these versions, executed by Capito Lycius before the time of .Justinian, has perished ; that by a certain Paeanius still exists, has been frequently published, and is contained in the editions of Hearne, Havercamp, and Verheyk. Many trans­lations are to be found into English, French, Italian, and German, none of them deserving any particular notice.

In illustration, the dictionaries of Grosse, Stendal, 1811 and 1819; and of Seebode, Hanov. 1818, 1825, and 1828; Moller, Disputatio de Eutropioi 4to., Altdorf. 1685; the excellent dis­sertation of Tzschucke prefixed to this edition; the preface of Verheyk, and the prooemium of Grosse, may be consulted.

. (Suidas, s. vv. Evrpoirtos, Kairirwv ; Symmach. £}pist. iii. 47, 53 ; Auctor Anonym, de Antiq. Con-stantinopol. lib. i. c. 5. p. 4 (vol. xvii. of the Venetian Corpus); Codinus Curopalates, Select, de Orig. Constantinopol. pp. 4 and 7, ed* Venet.; Jo. Ma-lala, Chronograph, in viL Julian, apost.; Nicephor. (rregor. Oratio encomiastica in Imp. Constant. Mag. quoted by Fabricius and Tzschucke from Lambe-eius, Comment, de JSiblioihec. Caes. viii. p. 136, ed. JCollar ; Eutrop. Dedic. ad Vol. Imp. lib. x. 16 and 18; Amm.. Marcell. -xxix. 1. § 36, and note of Vales ; Liban. in vit. vol. i. p. 113, ed* Reiske, and EpisL iv. 191, ad TAemist.; Greg. Naz, Epist.



137, 138 ; Cod. Theod. i.-l. § 2, xii. 29. § 3. and Gothofred. Prosopogr. Cod. Theod. p. 52; Gennad. De Viris III. c. 49.) [W. R.]

EUTROPIUS (EyVpeJmos), a physician who lived probably in the fourth century after Christ, as he is mentioned along with Ausonius by Mar- cellus Empiricus (in Praefat.) as having been one of his immediate predecessors. He wrote a medi­ cal work which is noticed by Marcellus, but is no longer extant. [W. A. G.]

EUTYCHES (EMxns). 1. An engraver of gems, was one of the sons of djoscurides. His name is seen on ail extant gem, with the inscrip­tion ETTTXHS AIO5KOYPIAOT AIFEAIO5. (Bracci, P. ii. tab. 73 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 42.)

2. Of Bithynia, a sculptor, who is known by a statue in the worst style of ancient art, with the inscription EYTTXHC BEITYNET5 TEXNITHG EIIOIEI. (Wincklemann, Gesch. d. Kunst, b. x. c. l.§21.) [P. S.]

EUTYCHES or EUTY'CHIUS, a disciple of Priscian, taught Latin grammar publicly at Con­stantinople, and wrote a treatise in two books, De disuernendis conjugatiombus Libri //., inscribed to his pupil Craterus. This work was first published by Camerarius, Tubing. 4to. 1537, along with Marius Victorinus, is included in the " Gramma* ticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui" of PutschiuSj Hanov. 4to. 1605, and has been recently edited in a more correct and complete form by Lindemann (Corpus Grammat. Lot. i. p. 151) from a MS. now at Vienna, but formerly in the monastery of Bobbio. Here the author is termed Eutycliius and not Eutyclies.

Some remarks from a tract of Eutychius, De Aspiratione, are to be found in the 9th chapter of Cassiodorus, De Orihographia. [ W. R.]

EUTYCHES (Ejry'xfls), a presbyter and abbot at Constantinople, in the 5th century, who headed the party opposed to the Nestorian doctrines [NES-torius]. Nestorius having maintained that there are in Christ two persons or substances (JirooW-<r«s), one divine (the Aoyos), and one human (Jesus), but with only one aspect, and united not by nature, but by will and affection ;—Eutyches> carried his opposition to this system so far as to assert that in Christ there is but one nature, that of the Incarnate Word. The declaration "the word was made flesh" implies, according to Euty-ches, that He so took human nature upon Him,: that His own nature was not changed. From this it follows that His body is not a mere human body, but a body of God. There can be no doubt that this doctrine, if pushed to its logical conse-^ quences, would be highly dangerous, since it would destroy all the practical benefits of our belief in in the Incarnation, as it involves the denial that we have a High Priest who can be touched with a feeling of our infirmities. . If this is borne in mind, the horror which it excited can be accounted for; and although we do not know that Eutyches,-any more than many other teachers of error, did carry out his principles to their practical conclu­sions, still the means which were adopted to sup­port his cause were such as to prevent our feeling any sympathy with it. His opinions became po­pular in the Alexandrian Church, where the doc­trines of Nestorius had been most loudly con­demned, and where the patriarch Dioscurus was eminently violent; „ and unscrupulous. Eutycheji

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