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and is further inconsistent with the language of Thucydides, who represents the Syracusans as act ing on the offensive, and shews in Nicias's letter that they had it in their power to force an engage ment. Of his ultimate fate we are ignorant: his name (it is probably his) occurs as far back as the eighteenth year of the war, b. c. 422, among the signatures to the Lacedaemonan treaties. (Thuc. y. 19,^24, vii, 16, 69; Diod. xiii. 13; Plut. M- cia8,c. 20.) [A. H. C.]
EUTHYDEMUS (EMJ^uos). 1. A sophist, was born at Chios, and migrated with his brother pionysodorus to Thurii in Italy. Being exiled thence, they came to Athens, where they resided imany years. The pretensions of Euthydemus and his brother are exposed by Plato in the dialogue which bears the name of the former. A sophism of Euthydemus, as illustrating the " fallacy of composition," is mentioned by Aristotle. (Plat. JEuthydemus, CratyL p. 386; Arist. Rhet. ii. 24, ,§ 3, Soph. EL 20; Ath. xi. p.506,b ; Sext. Emp. adVf Matli.-vii. 13.)
.?. 2. Son of Ceph^lus of Syracuse, and brother to Lysias the orator. (Plat. Rep. i. p. 328 ; see vol. i. p. 668, a.)
*his peculiar fashion, for imagining himself to know more than he did. (Plat. Conv, p. 222 ; Xen.-Mem. i. 2. § 29, iv. 2.)
t 4. A man of Sicyon, who made himself tyrant of the city, together with Timocleidas.. On their deposition, according to Pausanias, the supreme .power was committed to Cleinias, the father of Aratus, [cleinias, No. 5.]
5. A writer on cookery, referred to by Athe- naeus, who quotes certain verses of his on salted fish, set forth by him in joke as a genuine frag ment of Hesiod. (Athen. iii. p. 116, a. xii. p. 516, c.) [E. E.]
EUTHYDEMUS (EJO^or), king of Bac-tria, was a native of Magnesia. (Polyb. xi. 34.) "We know nothing of the circumstances attending his elevation to the sovereignty of Bactria, but he .seems to have taken advantage of dissensions among the descendants of those who had first established the independence of that country, and to have wrested the sovereign power either from Diodotus II. or some of his family. He then extended his power over the neighbouring provinces, so as to become the founder of the greatness of the Bactrian monarchy, though not the actual founder of the kingdom, as has been erroneously inferred from a passage in Strabo. (Strab. xi. p. 515 ; Polyb. xi.
-34; Wilson's Ariana, p. 220.) Antioclms the Great, after his expedition against Parthia in b. c. 212, proceeded to invade the territories of the Bactrian king, Euthydemus met him on the banks X)f the Arius, but was defeated and compelled to fall back upon Zariaspa, the capital of Bactria. (Polyb. x. 49.) From hence he entered into negotiations with Antiochus, who appears to have despaired of effecting his subjugation by force, as he was readily induced to come to terms, by which he confirmed Euthydemus in the regal dignity, and gave one of his own daughters in marriage to his son Demetrius. In return for this, Euthydemus lent him his support in his Indian expedition. (Polyb. xi. 34.) The commencement of the reign of Euthydemus may be referred with much probability to about b. c. 220. (Wilson's
Ariana, p. 221.) Silver coins of this prince', of Greek style of workmanship and bearing Greek inscriptions, have been found in considerable num-r hers at Bokhara, Balkh, and other places within the limits of Bactria, thus attesting the extent to which Greek civilization had been introduced into those remote regions. (Ibid. p. 222.) [E. H. B.]
COIN OP EUTHYDEMUS.
EUTHYMANES, or more correctly EUTHY'* MENES (EvQvfJievris), of Massilia, is referred to several times as the author of a geographical work, the real nature of which, however, is unknown. (Plut. de Plac. Philos. 4; Athen. ii. c. 90 ; Lydus de Mens. 68; Artemid. Epit. p. 63.) Clemens of Alexandria (Strom. i. p. 141) mentions an Euthy- menes as the author of Xpoi/tKd^ but whether they are the same or different persons, cannot be deter mined. [L. S.]
EUTHYMEDES, a Greek painter of some note, whose time is unknown. (Plin. xxxv. 11. s. 40. § 42.) [P. S.]
EUTHYMIDAS, a leading man at Chalcis in Euboea, was driven out of his native city by the Roman party, and made an unsuccessful attempt in b.c. 192 to bring it under the power of the Aetolians. (Liv. xxxv. 37, 38.)
EUTHYMIDES, a vase-painter, whose name occurs frequently on vessels found at Adria on the Po, and at Volci. (MUller, Arch. d. Kunst, § 257, n. 7.) [P. S.]
EUTHYMIUS ZIGABENUS, aGreek monk of the convent of the Virgin Mary at Constantinople, lived about the beginning of the 12th century of our era, at the time of the emperor Alexius Comnenus, with whom he was connected by intimate friendship. In A. d. Ill 8, when the emperor died, Euthymius was still alive; and he himself says that he twice heard the emperor dispute against the enemies of the Greek church—that is, probably against the Latins. Respecting his life, see especially Anna Comnena (lib. xv.) and L. Allatius. (De Consens. utr. Eccles. ii. 10. 5.) Euthymius was the author of several works, all of which are still extant in numerous MSS., bat the following only have been printed : 1. TlavoirXta. Soy/jiaTiKri tvjs op0o5o|ou TrioTeeos, directed against heretics of every class, was written by the command of Alexius Comnenus. It is divided into 28 titles, and its substance is taken chiefly from the early ecclesiastical fathers. A Latin translation of it was published by P. F. Zinus, Venice, 1555, fol., reprinted at Lyons, 1556, 8vo., and at Paris, 1560, 8vo. The Greek original, has not yet been published, except the last title, which is contained in. Sylbtirg's Saracenica, pp. 1—54. 2. Victory and Triumph over the impious, manifold, and execrable sect of the Messaliani, &c., together with fourteen anathemata pronounced against them. It was edited in Greek; with a Latin version and notes.