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On this page: Euphrasius – Euphrates – Euphron



adoraritem) : Alexander and Philip riding in four-horsed chariots, and other quadrigae and bigae. (Plin. xxxiv, 8. s. 19, $ 16.) The statue -of Apollo Patroiis, in his temple in the Cerameicus at Athens, was by Euphranor. (Paus. i. 3. § 3.) Lastly, his statue of Hephaestus, in which the god was not lame, is mentioned by Dion Chrysostom. (Orat. p. 466, c.)

, As a painter, Euphranor executed many great works, the chief of which were seen, in the time of Pausanias, in a porch in the Cerameicus. On the one side were the twelve gods; and on the op­posite wall, Theseus, with Democracy and Demos (Arj/jo/cpaT/a re Kal atj/aos), in which picture Theseus was represented as the founder of the equal polity of Athens. In the same place was his picture of the battle between the Athe­nian and Boeotian cavalry at Mantineia, contain­ing portraits of Epaminondas and of Gryl-lus, the _son of Xenophon. (Paus. i. 3. § 2, 3.) There were also some celebrated pictures by him at Ephesus, namely, Ulysses, in his feigned mad­ness, yoking an ox with a horse (it is difficult to understand the next words of Pliny, "etpalliati cogitantes") ; and a commander sheathing his sword. (Plin. xxxv. 11; s. 40. § 25.)

Euphranor also wrote works on proportion and on colours (de Symmetria et Coloribus^ Plin. I. c.), the two points In which his own excellence seems chiefly to have consisted. Pliny says that he was the first who properly expressed the dignity of heroes, by the proportions he gave to their statues; and Hirt observes that this statement is confirmed by the existing copy of his Paris. (Gesch. d. Bild. Kurist, p. 208.) He made the bodies somewhat more slendar, and the heads and limbs larger. His system of proportion was adopted, with some varia­tion, -by his great contemporary, Lysippus : in painting, Zeuxis had already practised it. It was, no doubt, with reference to proportion, as well as colouring, that he used to say that the Theseus of Parrhasius had been fed on roses, but his on flesh. (Plin. L c.; Plut. de Glor* AtJi. 2.) In his great picture of the twelve gods, the colouring of the hair of Hera was particularly admired. (Lucian, Imag. 7.) Of the same picture Valerius Maximus relates that Euphranor invested Poseidon with siich surpassing majesty, that he was unable to give, as he had intended, <a nobler expression to Zeus, .(viii, 11, ext. 5.) It is said that the idea of his Zeus was at length suggested by his hearing a, scholar recite the description in Homer:—'Ajtt-§p6(ricu 8* apa xcutcu, &c. (Eustath. ad IL i. 529.) Miiller believed that Euphranor merely copied the £eus pf Phidias. (Arch. d. Kttnst, § 140, n. 3.) Plutarch (£.<?.), amidst much praise of the picture of the battle of Mantineia, says that Euphranor painted it under a divine inspiration (otto: dvevBov-(ricumas). Philostratus, in his rhetorical style, ascribes to Euphranor rd evffKiov (light and shade) Kal r6 evirvow (expression) Kal rti elffexov tc Kal Q*XOV (perspective and foreshortening). ( Vit. Apol-lon. ii. 9.) Pliny (Lc.) says that Euphranor was, above all men, diligent and willing to learn, and always equal to himselt His disciples were, A.ntidotus (Plin. he. § 27), Carmanides (tb. § 42), and Leonidas of Anthedon. (Steph. Byz. *. v, *Ai>0^$«iH>.) He was himself a disciple of Ariston, the son of Aristeides of Thebes. [arls-teides.]

2, An architect of little note, who wrote de


praeceptis symmetriarum, (Vitruv. vii. PraeC' § 14.) [P. S.]

EUPHRASIUS (E%>a(nos), a New Platonist and a disciple .of lamblichus. (Eunap. Vit. Soph, p* 21. ed. Hadrian. Junius.) [L. S.]

EUPHRATES (Eitypa-njs), an eminent Stoic philosopher of the time of Hadrian. According to Philostratus (Vit. Soph. i. 7, Vit. ApolL i. 13), he was a native of Tyre, and according to Stephanus of Byzantium (s.v. 3ETri<f>dv€ia)9 of .Epiphaneia in Syria; whereas Eunapius (p. 3, ed. Boissonade) calls him an Egyptian. At the time when Pliny the younger served in Syria, he became acquainted with Euphrates, and seems to have formed an inti­ mate friendship with him. In oiie of his letters (Epist. i. 10) he gives us a detailed account of the virtues and talents of Euphrates. His great power as an orator is acknowledged also by other contem­ poraries (Arrian, Dissert. Epictet. iii. 15, iv. 8; M. Aurel. x. 31), though Apollonius of Tyana charges him with avarice and servile flattery. When he had arrived at an advanced age, and was tired of life, he asked and obtained from Ha­ drian the permission of putting an end to himself by poison. (Dion Cass. Ixix. 8.) [L. S.]

EUPHRON (£%>&»/), a citizen of Sicyon, who held the chief power there during the period of its subjection to Sparta. In b. c. 368 the city was compelled by Epameinondas to join the Theban alliance; and, though its constitution appears to have remained unchanged, the influence of Eu-phron was no doubt considerably diminished. In order, therefore, to regain it, he took advantage of the dissatisfaction of the Arcadians and Argives with the moderation of Epameinondas, in leaving the old oligarchical governments undisturbed [epameinondas], and, representing to them that the supremacy of Lacedaemon would surely be restored in Sicyon if matters continued as they were, he succeeded, through their assistance, in establishing democracy. In the election of gene­rals which followed, he himself was chosen, with four colleagues. He then procured the appoint­ment of his own son, Adeas, to the command of the mercenary troops in the service of the re­public ; and he further attached these to his cause by an unsparing use, not only of the public money and the sacred treasures, but of the wealth also of many whom he drove into banishment on the charge of Laconism. His next step was to rid himself of his colleagues ; and having effected this by the exile of some and the murder of the rest, he became tyrant of Sicyon. He was not, how­ever, entirely independent, for the citadel was occupied by a Theban harmost, sent there, as it would seem, after the democratic revolution ; and we find Euphron co-operating with that officer in a campaign against Phlius, probably in b. c. 365. Not long after this oligarchy was again estab­lished in Sicyon, by Aeneias, of Stymphalus, the Arcadian general, and apparently with the con­currence of the Theban harmost. Euphron upon this fled to the harbour, and, having sent to Co­rinth for the Spartan commander Pasimelus, deli­vered it up to him, making many professions at the same time (to which little credit;seems to have been given) of having been influenced in all he had done by attachment to the interests of Lace-daemon. Party-strife, however, still continuing at Sicyon, he was enabled, by help from Athens, to regain possession of the city; but he was aware that,

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