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genius. This prejudice was throughout the greatest1 obstacle with which he had to contend, and it may be regarded as the highest proof of his ability that he overcame it even to the extent to which he was able. It must be borne in mind also, if we praise him for his fidelity to the royal house of Macedonia, that this same disadvantage, by rendering it im­ possible for him to aspire to any independent au­ thority, made it as much his interest as his duty to uphold the legitimate occupants of the throne of Alexander. He is described by Plutarch (Eum. 11) as a man of polished manners and appearance, with the air of a courtier rather than a warrior; and his oratory was more subtle and plausible than energetic. Craft and caution seem indeed to have been the prevailing points in his character; though he was able also to exhibit, when called for, the utmost energy and activity. [E. H. B.]

EUMENES (Efyez^s) I., king, or rather ruler, of pergamus. He was the son of Eumenes, bro­ ther of Philetaerus, and succeeded his uncle in the government of Pergamus (b. c. 263), over which he reigned for two-and-twenty years. Soon after his accession he obtained a victory near Sardis over Antiochus Soter, and was thus enabled to establish his dominion over the provinces in the neighbourhood of his capital; but no further parti­ culars of his reign are recorded. (Strab. xiii. p. 624; Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 401.) According to Athe- naeus (x. p. 445, d.), his death was occasioned by a fit of drunkenness. He was succeeded by his cousin Attains, also a nephew of Philetaerus. It appears to be to this Eumenes (though styled by mistake king of Bithynia) that Justin (xxvii. 3) ascribes, without doubt erroneously, the great vic­ tory over the Gauls, which was in fact gained by his successor Attalus. [attalus I., vol. i. p. 410, a.] [E.H.B.]

EUMENES (Evpevris) II., king of pergamus son of Attalus I., whom he succeeded on the throne b. c. 197. (Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 403.) He inherited from his predecessor the friendship and alliance of the Romans, which he took the utmost pains to cultivate, and was included by them in the treaty of peace concluded with Philip, king of Macedonia, in 196, by which he obtained posses­sion of the towns of Oreus and Eretria in Euboea. (Liv. xxxiii. 30, 34.) In the following year he sent a fleet to the assistance of Flamininus in the war against Nabis. (Liv.xxxiv. 26.) His alliance was in vain courted by his powerful neighbour, Antiochus III., who offered him one of his daugh­ters in marriage. (Appian, Syr. 5.) Eumenes plainly saw that it was his interest to adhere to the Romans in the approaching contest; and far from seeking to avert this, he used all his endea­vours to urge on the Romans to engage in it. When hostilities had actually commenced, he was active in the service of his allies, both by sending his fleet to support that of the Romans under Livius and Aemilius, and facilitating the important passage of the Hellespont. In the decisive battle of Magnesia (b. c. 190), he commanded in person the troops which he furnished as auxiliaries to the Roman army, and appears to have rendered valuable services. (Liv. xxxv. 13, xxxvi. 43—45, xxxvii, 14,18, 33, 37,41; Appian, Syr. 22, 25, 31,33,38, 43; Justin, xxxi. 8.) Immediately on the conclusion of peace, he hastened to Rome, to put forward in person his claims to reward : his pretensions were favourably received by the senate, who granted


him the possession of Mysia, Lydia, both Phrygias, and Lycaonia, as well as of Lysimachia, and the Thracian Chersonese. By this means Eumenes found himself raised at once from a state of com­parative insignificance to be the sovereign of a powerful monarchy. (Liv. xxxvii. 45, 52—55, xxxviii. 39; Polyb. xxii. 1—4, 7, 27 ; Appian, Syr. 44.) About the same time, he married the daughter of Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia, and procured from the Romans favourable terms for that monarch. (Liv. xxxviii. 39.) This alliance was the occasion of involving him in a war with Pharnaces, king of Pontus, who had invaded Cap­padocia, but which was ultimately terminated by the intervention of Rome. (Polyb. xxv. 2, 4, 5, 6, xxvi. 4.) He was also engaged in hostilities with Prusias, king of Bithynia, which gave the Romans a pretext for interfering, not only to protect Eu-. menes, but to compel Prusias to give up Hannibal, who had taken refuge at his court. (Liv. xxxix. 46, 51; Justin. xxxii. 4; Corn. Nep. Hann. 10.) During all this period, Eumenes enjoyed the highest favour at Rome, and certainly was not backward in availing himself of it. He was con­tinually sending embassies thither, partly to culti­vate the good understanding with the senate in which he now found himself, but frequently also to complain of the conduct of his neighbours, especi­ally of the Macedonian kings, Philip and his suc­cessor, Perseus. In 172, to give more weight to his remonstrances, he a second time visited Rome in person, where he was received with the utmost distinction. On his return from thence, he visited Delphi, where he narrowly escaped a design against his life formed by the emissaries of Perseus. (Liv. xlii. 11—16 ; Diod. Exc. Leg. p. 623, Exc. Vales. p. 577; Appian, Mac. Exc. 9, pp.519—526, ed. Schweigh.) But though he was thus apparently on terms of the bitterest hostility with the Macedo­nian monarch, his conduct during the war that followed was not such as to give satisfaction to the Romans; and he was suspected of correspond­ing secretly with Perseus, a charge which, accord­ing to Polybius, was not altogether unfounded; but his designs extended only to the obtaining from that prince a sum of money for procuring him a peace on favourable terms. (Polyb. Fragm. Va­tican, pp. 427-429 ; Liv. xliv. 13,24, 25; Appian, Mac. Exc. 16, pp. 531-2.) His overtures were, however, rejected by Perseus, and after the victory of the Romans (b. c. 167), he hastened to send his brother Attalus to the senate with his congratula­tions. They did not choose to take any public notice of what had passed, and dismissed Attalus with fair words; but when Eumenes, probably alarmed at finding his schemes discovered, deter­mined to proceed to Rome in person, the senate passed a decree to forbid it, and finding that he was already arrived at Brundusium, ordered him to quit Italy without delay. (Polyb. xxx. 17, Fragm. Vatic, p. 428 ; Liv. Epit. xlvi.) Hence­forward he was constantly regarded with suspicion by the Roman senate, and though his brother At­talus, whom he sent to Rome again in b. c. 160, was received with marked favour, this seems to have been for the very purpose of exciting him against Eumenes, who had sent him, and inducing him to set up for himself. (Polyb. xxxii. 5.) The last years of the reign of Eumenes seem to have been disturbed by frequent hostilities on the part of Pru­sias, king of Bithynia, and the Gauls of Galatia;

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