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EUMENES,

the remaining leaders of the party of Perdiccas, were condemned to death. The conduct of the war against them was assigned to Antigonus ; but he did not take the field until the following sum­mer (b. c. 3*20). Eumenes had wintered at Celae-nae in Phrygia, and strengthened himself by all means in his power, but he was unable to make head against Antigonus, who defeated him in the plains of Orcynium in Cappadocia; and finding himself unable to eifect his retreat into Armenia, as he had designed to do, he adopted the resolu­tion of disbanding the rest of his army, and throw­ing himself, with only 700 troops, into the small but impregnable fortress of Nora, on the confines of Lycaonia and Cappadocia. (Plut. Eum. 8—10 ; Diod. xviii. 37, 40, 41 ; Corn. Nep. Emn. 5.) Here he was closely blockaded by the forces of Antigonus; but, confident in the strength of his post, refused all offers of capitulation, and awaited the result of external changes. It was not long before these took place: the death of Antipater caused a complete alteration in the relations of the different leaders; and Antigonus, who was anxious to obtain the assistance of Eumenes, made him the most plausible offers, of which the latter only availed himself so far as enabled him to quit his mountain fortress, in which he had now held out nearly a year, and withdraw to Cappadocia. Here he'was busy in levying troops and gathering his friends together, when he received letters from Polysperchon and Olympias, entreating his sup­port, and granting him, in the name of the king, the supreme command throughout Asia. Eumenes was, whether from interest or from real attach­ment, always disposed to espouse the cause of the royal family of Macedonia, and gladly embraced the offer: he eluded the pursuit of Menander, who marched against him by order of Antigonus, and arrived in Cilicia, where he found the select body of Macedonian veterans called the Argyraspids, under Antigenes and Teutamus. These, as well as the royal treasures deposited at Quinda, had been placed at his disposal by Polysperchon and Olympias: but though welcomed at first with ap­parent enthusiasm, Eumenes was well aware of the jealousy with which he was regarded, and even sought to avoid the appearance of command­ing the other generals by the singular expedient of erecting a tent in which the throne, the crown and sceptre of Alexander were preserved, and where all councils of war were held, as if in the presence of the deceased monarch. (Plut. Eum. 11—13; Diod. xviii. 42, 53, 58—61; Polyaen. iv. 8. § 2; Justin. xiv. 2.) By these and other means Eu­menes succeeded in conciliating the troops under his command, so that they rejected all the attempts made by Ptolemy and Antigonus to corrupt their fidelity. At the same time he made extensive levies of mercenaries, and having assembled in all a numerous army, he advanced into Phoenicia, with the view of reducing the maritime towns, and sending a fleet from thence to the assistance of Polysperchon. This plan was, however, frustrated .by the arrival of the fleet of Antigonus, and the advance of that general himself with a greatly superior force. Eumenes in consequence retired into the interior of Asia, and took up his winter-quarters in Babylonia. (Diod. xviii. 61—63, 73.) In the spring of 317 he descended the left bank of the Tigris, and having foiled all the endeavours of Seleucus to prevent his passing that river, ad-

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yanced into Susiana, where he was joined by Peu-cestes at the head of all the forces of Media, Per­sia, and the other provinces of Upper Asia. Still he did not choose to await here the advance of Antigonus; and leaving a strong garrison to guard the royal treasures at Susa, he took post with his army behind the Pasitigris. Antigonus, who had followed him out of Babylonia, and effected his junction with Seleucus and Pithon, now marched against him; but having met with a check at the river Copratas, withdrew by a cross march through a difficult country into Media, while Eumenes took up his quarters at Persepolis. He had many diffi­culties to contend with, not only from the enemy, but from the discontent of his own troops, the re­laxation of their discipline when they were allowed to remain in the luxurious provinces of Persia, and above all from the continual jealousies and intrigues of the generals and satraps under his command. But whenever they were in circumstances of diffi­culty or in presence of the enemy, all were at once ready to acknowledge his superiority, and leave him the uncontrolled direction of everything. The two armies first met on the confines of Gabiene, when a pitched battle ensued, with no decided advantage to either side; after which Antigonus withdrew to Gadamarga in Media, while Eumenes established his winter-quarters in Gabiene. Here Antigonus attempted to surprise him by a sudden march in the depth of the winter; but he was too wary to be taken unprepared: he contrived by a stratagem to delay the march of his adversary un­til he had time to collect his scattered forces, and again bring matters to the issue of a pitched battle. Neither party obtained a complete victory, and Eumenes would have renewed the combat the next day; but the baggage of the Macedonian troops had fallen into the hands of the enemy, and the Argyraspids, furious at their loss, agreed to pur­chase its restoration from Antigonus by delivering up their general into his hands. The latter is said to have been at first disposed to spare the life of his captive, which he was strongly urged to do by Nearchus and the young Demetrius; but all his other officers were of the contrary opinion, and Eumenes was put to death a few days after he had fallen into the hands of the enemy. (Plut. Eum. 13—19; Diod. xix. 12—15, 17—34, 37 —44; Corn. Nep. Eum. 7—12; Justin. xiv. 3, 4; Polyaen. iv. 8. § 3, 4.) These events took place in the winter of 317 to 316 b. c.*

Eumenes was only forty-five years old at the time of his death. (Corn. Nep. Eum. 13.) Of his consummate ability, both as a general and a states­man, no doubt can be entertained; and it is proba­ble that he would have attained a far more import­ant position among the. successors of Alexander, had it not been for the accidental disadvantage of his birth. But as a Greek of Cardia, and not a native Macedonian, he was constantly looked upon with dislike, and even with contempt, both by his opponents and companions in arms, at the very time that they were compelled to bow beneath his

* In the relation of these events, the chronology of Droysen has been followed. Mr. Clinton (wha places the death of Eumenes early in 315 b.c.) appears to have been misled by attaching too much importance to the archonships, as mentioned by Diodorus. See Droysen, Gesch. d. Nachf. p. 269, not.

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