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EUMENES.

2. A Peripatetic philosopher, who wrote trepi

Kuiufiias. (Schol. MS. ad Aeschin. c. Ti- •marcli. § 39. 4.) Perhaps he is the same from whom Diogenes Laertius (v. 5) quotes an account of the death of Aristotle. (M.emeke,Hist. Crit. Com. Grace, p. 8.) [P. S.]

EUMELUS (Eu^Xos), a painter, whose pro­ductions were distinguished for their beauty. There was a Helen by him in the forum at Rome. He probably lived about a. d. 190. (Philostr. Imag. Prooem. p. 4 ; Vit. Soph. ii. 5.) He is supposed to have been the teacher of Aristodemus, whose school was frequented by the elder Philostratus. [P. S.]

EUMELUS (EtfywjAos), a veterinary surgeon, of* whom nothing is known except that he was a native of Thebes. (Hippiatr. p. 12.) He may per­haps have lived in the fourth or fifth century after Christ. Some fragments, which are all that remain of his writings, are to be found in the Collection of Writers on Veterinary Surgery, first published in Latin by J. Ruellius, Paris. 1530, fol., and in Greek by S. Grynaeus, Basil. 1537, 4to. [W. A. G.]

EUMENES (Efyevns). 1. Ruler or dynast of the city of Amastris on the Euxine, contempo­rary with Antiochus Soter. The citizens of Hera-cleia wished to purchase from him his sovereignty, as Amastris had formerly belonged to them; but to this he refused to accede. He, however, soon after gave up the city to Ariobarzanes, king of Pontus. (Memnon, 16, ed. Orelli.) Droysen (//e£-lenismuS) vol. ii. p. 230) supposes this Eumenes to be the nephew of Philetaerus, who afterwards became king of Pergamus [eumenes I.]; but there do not seem any sufficient grounds for this identification.

2. Brother of Philetaerus, founder of the king­dom of Pergamus. [philetaerus.] [E. H. B.]

EUMENES (Evpeviis) of cardia, secretary to Alexander the Great, and after his death one of the most distinguised generals among his succes­sors. The accounts of his origin vary considerably, some representing his father as a poor man, who was obliged to subsist by his own labour, others .as one of the most distinguished citizens of his native place. (Plut. Eum. 1; Corn. Nep. Eum. 1; Aelian, V. H. xii. 43.) The latter statements are upon all accounts the most probable : it is certain, at least, that he received a good education, and having attracted the attention of Philip of Macedon on occasion of his visiting Cardia, was taken by that king to his court, and employed as his private secretary. In this capacity he soon rose to a high place in his confidence, and after his death conti­nued to discharge the same office under Alexander, .whom he accompanied throughout his expedition . in Asia, and who seems to have treated him at all times with the most marked confidence and dis­tinction, of which he gave a striking proof about two years before his death, by giving him in mar­riage Artonis, a Persian princess, the daughter of Artabazus, at the same time that he himself married Stateira, the daughter of Dareius. (Arrian, Anab. vii. 4.) A still stronger evidence of the favour which Eumenes enjoyed with Alexander is, that he was able to maintain his ground against the influence of Hephaestion, with whom he was continually at enmity. (Arrian, A nab. vii. 13,14; Plut. Eum. 2.) Nor were his services confined to those of his office as secretary: he was more than once em­ployed by Alexander in military commands, and was ultimately appointed by him to the post of hipparch or leader of one of the chief divisions of

EUMENES.

cavalry. (Arrian, Andb*\. 24; Plut. Eum. 1; Corn. Nep. Eum. 13.) v

In the discussions and tumults which ensued on the death of Alexander, Eumenes at first, aware of the jealousy with which as a Greek he was re­garded by the Macedonian leaders, refrained from taking any part; but when matters came to an open rupture, he was mainly instrumental in bring­ing about a reconciliation between the two parties. In the division of the satrapies which followed, Eumenes obtained the government of Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus: but as these provinces had never yet been conquered, and were still in the hands of Ariarathes, Antigonus and Leonnatus were appointed to reduce them for him. Antigonus, however, disdained compliance, and Leonnatus was quickly called off to Greece by his ambitious pro­jects. [leonnatus.] In these he endeavoured to persuade Eumenes, who had accompanied him into Phrygia, to join; but the latter, instead of doing so, abruptly quitted him, and hastening to Perdic-cas, revealed to him the designs of Leonnatus. By this proof of his fidelity, he secured the favour of the regent, who henceforward reposed his chief confidence in him. As an immediate reward, Per-diccas proceeded in person to subdue for him the promised satrapies, defeated, and put to death Ariarathes, and established Eumenes in the full possession of his government, b. c. 322. (Plut. Eum. 3 ; Diod. xviii. 3, 16 ; Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 69, a.; Corn. Nep. Eum. "2.) Here, however, he did not long remain, but accompanied the regent and the royal family into Cilicia. In the following spring, when Perdiccas determined to proceed in person against Ptolemy? he committed to Eumenes the chief command in Asia Minor, and ordered him to repair at once to the Hellespont, to make head against Antipater and Craterus. Eumenes took advantage of the interval before their arrival to raise a numerous and excellent body of cavalry out of Paphlagonia, to which he was indebted for many of his subsequent victories. Meanwhile, a new enemy arose against him in Neoptolemus, governor of Armenia, who had been placed under his command by Perdiccas, but then revolted from him, and entered into correspondence with Anti-pater and Craterus. Eumenes, however, defeated him before the arrival of his confederates, and then turned to meet Craterus, who was advancing against him, and to whom Neoptolemus had made his escape after his own defeat. The battle that ensued was decisive; for although the Macedonian phalanx suffered but little, Craterus himself fell, and Neoptolemus was slain by Eumenes with his own hand, after a deadly struggle in the presence of the two armies. (Plut. Eum. 4—7; Diod. xviii. 29—32; Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 70, b., 71, a.; Corn. Nep. Eum. 3, 4; Justin, xiii. 6, 8.) This took place in the summer of 321 b. c.

But while Eumenes was thus triumphant in Asia, Perdiccas had met with repeated disasters in Egypt, and had finally fallen a victim to the dis­content of his troops, just before the news arrived of the victory of Eumenes and the death of Cra­terus. It came too late : the tide was now turned, and the intelligence excited the greatest indigna­tion among the Macedonian soldiers, who had been particularly attached to Craterus, and who hated Eumenes as a foreigner, for such they con­sidered him. A general assembly of the army was held, in which Eumenes, Attalus, and Alcetas,

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