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EUDEMUS.

Thus, for instance, Eudemus and his contemporaries and fellow-disciples, Theophrastus and Phanias, wrote works with the same titles and on the same subjects as those of 4-ristotle. The works of Eu­demus of this kind were—1. On the Categories. 2. He pi 'Epiwiveias. 3. 'AfaAim/cef. 4. *u(7tKa, a work of which Simplicius in his commen­tary has preserved some fragments, in which Eudemus often contradicts his master. In this treatise, or in some other, he seems to have also treated on the nature of the human body. (Appul. Apolog. p. 463.) But all these works are lost, and likewise another of still more importance, in which he treated of the history of geometry and astro­nomy (r) irepl r£v *Affrpo\ojoviJi.€V(ay ' Diogl Laert. i. 23; or 'Ao-rpoA071/0) ' Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 432.)

Eudemus, however, is of most importance to us as an editor of and commentator upon the Aristo­telian writings. How closely he followed Aris­totle in his work on Physics, is shewn by the circumstance of later commentators referring to Eudemus in matters of verbal criticism. (Stahr, Aristotelia^ ii. p. 82.) Indeed Eudemus followed the Aristotelian system so closely, that modern scholars, as Brandis for instance, do not hesitate to ascribe to Eudemus some writings which are generally attributed to Aristotle. (Brandis, in Rliein. Museum, i. 4. pp. 283, 284.) Aristotle died in his 63rd year, without having pub­lished even half of his writings ; and the business of arranging and publishing his literary relics de­volved upon his nearest friends and disciples. Simplicius has preserved a passage of the work of Andronicus of Rhodes on Aristotle and his writings, which contains a fragment of a letter of Eudemus, which he wrote to Theophrastus, asking for an accurate copy of a manuscript of the fifth book of the Aristotelian Physics. (Simplic. ad Arist. Phys. fol. 216, a., lin. 7.) In the same manner the Aristotelian Metaphysics in their present form seem to have been composed by Eudemus or his successors ; for we learn from Asclepius of Tralles [asclepius], who has preserved many valuable notices from the works of the more ancient com­mentators, that Aristotle committed his manuscript of the Metaphysics to Eudemus, by which the publication of the work was delayed ; that on the death of Aristotle some parts of the manuscript were missing, and that these had to be completed from the other writings of Aristotle by the sur­vivors of Aristotle (ow ^rayeveffrepoi). (Ascle­pius, Prooem. in Aristot. Metaph. libr.A. p.-519, in Brandis, Schol. p. 589.) That we are indebted to Eudemus and his followers for the preservation of this inestimable work may also be inferred from the fact, that Joannes Philoppnus states that Pasicrates (or Pasicles) of Rhodus, brother of Eu­demus and likewise a disciple of Aristotle, was, according to the opinion of some ancient critics, the author of the second book of the Metaphysics (the book ci). (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 256 ; Syrian, ad Aristot. Metaph. B. p. 17 ; Alexand. Aphrodis. pp. 55, 82, ad Sophist. Elench. ii. p. 69, ed. Venet. 1529.)

For the Ethics, of Aristotle we are also probably indebted more or less to Eudemus. We have, under the name of Ethics, three works ascribed to Aristotle of very unequal value and quality. [aristoteles, pp. 330, 331.] One of these bears even the name of Eudemus (WOutd,

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EUDICIUS.

and was in all probability a recension of Aristotle's lectures edited by Eudemus. What share, how-, ever, Eudemus had in the composition of the chief work (the 'H0i/cci Ni/eojuaxeta) remains uncertain after the latest investigation of the subject. (Pansch, de Moralibus magnis subditicio Aristotelis libro^ 1841.) [A. S.]

EUDEMUS (EtfSr^os), the name of several Greek physicians, whom it is difficult to distinguish with certainty. [eudamus.]

1. A druggist, who apparently lived in the fourth or third century b.c. He is said by Theo­phrastus (Hist. Plant, ix. 17. 2), to have been emi­nent in his trade, and to have professed to be able to take hellebore without being purged. • . 2. A celebrated anatomist, who lived probably about the third century b. c., as Galen calls him a contemporary of Herophilus and Erasistratus. (Com­ment, in Hippocr. "Aphor." vi. 1, vol. xviii. pt. 1. p. 7.) He appears to have given particular attention to the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. (Galen, de Locis. Affect, iii. 14, vol. viii. p. 212.)' He considered the metacarpus and metatarsus each to consist of five bones (Galen, de Usu Part. iii. 8, vol. iii. p. 203), on which point Galen differed from him, but modern anatomists agree with him. He, however, fell into the error of supposing the acro-mion to be a distinct and separate bone. (Rufus' Ephes. de Appell. Part. Corp. Hum. p. 29.)

3. A physician at Rome, who was the paramour of Li via (or Li villa), the wife of Drusus Caesar, the son of the emperor Tiberius, and who joined her and Sejanus in their plot for poisoning her husband, a. d. 23. (Pirn. H. N. xxix. 8; Tac. Ann. iv. 3.) He was afterwards put to the tor­ture. (Tac. ibid, c. 11.) He is supposed to be the same person who is said by Caelius Aurelianus (de Morb. Acut. ii. 38, p. 171) to have been one/ of the followers of Themison, and whose medical observations on hydrophobia and some other dis­eases are quoted by him. He appears to be the same physician who is mentioned by Galen (de Meth. Med. i. 7. vol. x. p. 53) among- several others as belonging to the sect of the Methodici.

4. A contemporary and personal' acquaintance of Galen, in the latter part of the second century after Christ. (Galen, de Meth. Med. vi. 6. vol. x. p. 454.)

5. The name is also found in Galen, de Composr Medic, sec. Locos, ix. 5, vol. xiii. p. 291, deAntid. ii. 14, vol. xiv. p. 185; Athen. ix. pp. 369, 371 ; Cramer's Anecd. Graeca Paris, vol. iii., and in other places. [W. A. G.]

EUDICUS (EvtitKos), a Thessalian of Larissa, probably one of the family of the Aleuadae. Like most of his house, he was a devoted adherent of Philip of Macedon, and in B. c. 344 aided him in effecting the division of Thessaly into four tetrar- chies, at the head of one of which he was himself placed. Demosthenes stigmatizes him as a traitor to his country. The division above named had the effect of reducing Thessaly entirely under the controul of Philip. (Dem. de Coron. p. 241; Har- pocrat. s. v. EuSt/cos; Buttmann, Mythologus, vol. ii. p. 288, &c. ; Bockh, Explic. ad Pind. Pyth. x. p. 333.) [C. P. M.J

EUDICIUS, magister scriniorum, one of the first commission of Nine, appointed by Theodosius in a. d. 429 to compile a code upon a. plan which was afterwards abandoned for another. [DiODO- rus, vol. i. p. 1018.] [J. T. G.]

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