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Bayer (Hist. Regn. Grace. Bactriani, p. 95, &c.) has inferred the,existence of a second Eucratides, the son of the preceding, to whom he ascribes the murder of his father, and this view has been adopted by M. Raoul Rochette (Journal des Sav. 1835); but it does not seem to be established on any sufficient grounds. Wilson and Mioniiet con ceive Heliocles to have been the successor of Eucra tides. (Wilson's Ariana, p. 237; Mionnet, Suppl. t. 8, p. 470.) [heliocles.] [E. H. B.] , EUCTE'MON (ei}/ct^wj/), the astronomer. [meton.]
EUCTEMON (EvKTfow), a Greek rhetorician who lived in the early part of the Roman empire. He is mentioned only by Seneca, who has pre served a few fragments of his works. (Control), iii. 19, 20, iv. 25, v. 30, 34.) [L. S.]
EUDAEMON (EuSafyww). 1. The name of two victors in the Olympian games. One of them was an Egyptian, and won the prize in boxing, but the year is not known. (Philostr. Her. ii. 6.) The other was a native.of Alexandria, and gained a victory in the foot-race in 01. 237, or a. d. 169. (African, ap. Euseb. Chron. p. 44, 2d. edit. Scalig.)
2. A Greek grammarian, and contemporary of
•Libanius. He was a native of Pelusium in Egypt, and wrote a work on orthography, which is lost, but is often referred to by Suidas, in the Etymo-logicum, and by Stepharius of Byzantium, (s. vv. AfAta, AcwnciJAfOV, Ao/ci/^etor, Ka7T€TCtfAtoj>, and
*O/>€<rrfa; Eudoc. p. 168.) [L.S.]
EUDAMIDAS (Eiftaju'Sas). 1. A Spartan of some note, who, when the Chalcidians sent to implore aid against Olynthus in B. c. 383, was sent at the head of 2000 men. Before his departure he prevailed on the ephors to commit the next division which should be sent to the command of his brother Phoebidas. The latter, on his march, seized the Cadmea of Thebes; and in consequence of the delay of the main body of the troops thus occasioned, Eudamidas could effect but little. He, however, garrisoned several of the Chalcidian towns; and, making Potidaea his headquarters, carried .on the war without any decisive result. According to Diodorus, he was worsted in several engagements; and it would appear from Demosthenes (de Falsa Legal, p. 425), who speaks of three commanders having in this war fallen on the side of the Chalcidians and Lacedaemonians, that in one of these encounters Eudamidas was killed. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. § 24; Diod. xv. 20, 21.)
2. Two kings of'Sparta bore this name. Eudamidas I. was the younger son of Archidamus III. and succeeded his brother Agis III. in b. c. 330. The exact length of his reign is uncertain, but it was probably about 30 years. Plutarch (Apopkth. p. 220, 221) records some sayings of Eudamidas, which bespeak his peaceful character and policy, which is also attested by Pausanias (iii. 10. $ 5).
EUDAMUS (EvSajuos), is mentioned by Aris tophanes (Plut. 884) as a contemporary, and lived therefore in the fifth century b. c. The Scholiast informs us that he was by trade either a druggist of a goldsmith, and that he sold rings as antidotes against poisons. [W. A. G.]
mand 6f the troops left in India. (Arrian, Anab. vi. 27. § 5.) After Alexander's death he made himself master of the: territories of the Indian king Poms, and treacherously put that monarch to death. He by this means became very powerful, and in 317 b.c. brought to the support of Eumenes in the war against Antigonus a force of 3500 men and 125 elephants. (Diod. xix. 14.) With these he rendered him active service in the first battle in Gabiene, but seems nevertheless to have been jealous of him, and joined in the conspiracy of Anti-genes and Teutamos against him, though he was afterwards induced to divulge their plans. After the surrender of Eumenes, Eudemus was put to death by order of Antigonus, to whom he had always shewn a marked hostility. (Diod. xix. 15, 27,44; Plut. Eum. c. 16.)
EUDEMUS (E^os). 1. An historical writer, a native of either Naxos or Paros, who lived before the time of the Peloponnesian war. (Dionys. Jud. de Thuc. c. 5; Clem. Alex. Strom. vi. 2, 26, p. 267 ; Vossius, de Hist.Gr. p. 440, ed. Westermaim.)
2. A writer, apparently on natural history, who is frequently quoted by Aelian, in his History of Animals (iii. 21, iv. 8, 43, 45, 56, v. 7).
4. A rhetorician, who lived probably in the fourth century after Christ. He was the author of a lexicon, irepl Ael-ewv 'PrjTopiKwv, manuscripts of which are still extant at Paris, Vienna, and other places. His work appears ito have been dili gently used by Suidas, and is mentioned with praise by Eudocia. (Suidas, s. v. Etffojjuos; Eudocia, p. 165; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. vi. pp. 245, 632.) [C. P.M.]
EUDEMUS (ErfSTj/uos). 1. Of Cyprus, to whom Aristotle dedicated the dialogue eu&t^uos $ rrepi 'J'VX'fr) which is lost, and known to us only by some fragments preserved in Plutarch (Con-solat. ad Apollon. p. 115, b.), and a few other writers. (Fabric. Bill. Grace, vol. iii. pp. 393, 599 ; lonsius, De Script. Historiae PJiilosoph. i. 15. 3 ; Wyttenbach, ad Plut. I.e. p. 765; and the commentators on Cic. de Divin. i. 25.)
2. Of Rhodes, a contemporary and disciple of Aristotle. We have no particulars of his life ; but that he was one of the most important of Aristotle's ifumerous disciples may be inferred from the anecdote of Gellius (xiii. 5, where Eudemo must be read instead of Menedemo\ according to which Eudemus and Theophrastus were the only disciples whom the Peripatetic school esteemed worthy to fill the place of Aristotle after his death. Simpli-cius makes mention of a biography of Eudemus, supposed to be the work of one Damas or Damas-cius. (Simplic. ad Aristot. Pliys. vi. 216.) Eudemus was one of those immediate disciples of Aristotle who closely followed their master, and the principal object of whose works was to correct, amplify, and complete his writings and philosophy. It was owing to this circumstance, as we learn from the ancient critics, that Aristotle's writings were so often confounded with those of other authors.