The Ancient Library

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On this page: Episthenes – Epistrophus – Epitadas – Epitherses – Epocillus – Epona – Epopeus – Epopsius – Eporedorix


some to renounce their connexion with the bishop of Jerusalem. After this he allowed his zeal to get the better of all considerations of church order and decency, to such an extent, that he ac­tually ordained Paullinianus to the office of pres­byter, that he might perform the ministerial func­tions for the monks (who, as usual at that time, were laymen), and so prevent them from applying to Jerusalem to supply this want. John naturally protested loudly against this interference with his diocese, and appealed for help to the two patri­archal sees of Alexandria and Rome. Peace was not restored to the Church for some time. The next quarrel in which Epiphanius was involved was with Chrysostom. Some monks of Nitria had been expelled by Theophilus, bishop of Alex­andria, as Origenists, but were received and pro­tected at Constantinople [chrysgstomus]. Upon this Theophilus persuaded Epiphanius, now almost in his dotage, to summon a council of Cyprian bishops, which he did a.d. 401. This assembly passed a sentence of condemnation on Origen's books, which was made known to Chrysostom by letter; and Epiphanius proceeded in person to Constantinople, to take part in the pending dis­pute. Chrysostom was irritated by Epiphanius interfering in the government of his diocese ; and the latter, just before his return home, is reputed to have given vent to his bad feeling by the scandalous malediction, " I hope that you will not die a bishop!" upon which Chrysostom replied,—" I hope you will never get home!" (Sozomen. viii. 15.) For the credit of that really great and Christian man, it is to be hoped that the story is incorrect; and as both wishes were granted, it bears strong marks of a tale invented after the deaths of the two disputants. Epipha­nius died on board the ship, which was conveying him back to Cyprus, A. d. 402, leaving us a me­lancholy example of the unchristian excesses into which bigotry may hurry a man of real piety, and a sincere desire to do God service.

The extant works of Epiphanius are (1) An- coratus, a discourse on the faith, being an exposi­ tion of the doctrine of the Trinity; (2) Pdna- rium9 a discourse against Heresies, of which he attacks no less than eighty; (3) An epitome of 2, called Anacephalaeosis; (4) De Ponderibus et Mensuris liber ; (5) Two Epistles ; the first to John bishop of Jerusalem, translated by Jerome into Latin ; the second to Jerome himself, in whose works they are both found. A great number of Epiphanius's writings are lost. The earliest edi­ tions were at Basle, in Latin, translated by Cor- narius, 1543, and again in the following year sumtu et typis Jo. Hervagii. The edition of Dio- nysius Petavius, in Greek and Latin, appeared at Paris, 1622, 2 vols. fol., and at Leipzig, 1682$ with a commentary by Valesius. (Sozomen. /. c.; Hieronym. Apol. 1. adv. Rufin. p. 222 ; Cave, Hist. Lift. vol. i.; Neander, KirchengeschicJite^ vol. ii. p.1414, &c.) [G. E. L. C.] •• EPI'POLE fETmrotof), a daughter of Trachion, of Carystus in Euboea. In the disguise of a man she went with the Greeks against Troy ; but when Palamedes discovered her sex, she was stoned to death by the Greek army. (Ptolem. Hephaest. 5.) Epipole was also a surname of Demeter at Lace- daemon. (Hesych. s. v. 'ETrnroAAa.) [L. S.J

EPISTHENES ('Emo-fle^s), of Amphipolis, commanded the Greek peltastae at the battle of



Curiaxa, and is mentioned byXenOphon as an able officer. His name occurs again in the march of the Greeks through Armenia. (Xen. Anab. i. 10. §7,iv.6. §1.) [E.E.]

EPISTROPHUS ('E7riVTpo</>os), three mythi­ cal personages of this name are mentioned in the Iliad, (ii. 516, &c., 692, 856.) [L. S.]

EPITADAS ('ETTiraSas), son of Molobrus, was the commander of the 420 Lacedaemonians who were blockaded in the island of Sphacteria in the 7th year of the Peloponnesian war, b. c. 425. He appears to have executed his difficult task with prudence and ability, and was spared by death in the final combat the disgrace of surrender. (Thuc, iv. 8, 31, 38.) [A. H. C.]

EPITHERSES ('E7ri0e'pcr7?s), of Nicaea, a gram­ marian, who wrote on Attic comic and tragic words (irepl Ae|€«j/ 'ArTfKcoz/ ital KwfJUKwv Kal TpayiK&j'; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ni/caia; Erotian. s. v^A^rjv, p. 88, who gives the name wrongly ®e/xns). If he be the same as the father of the rhetorician Aemilianus, he must have lived under the Emperor Tiberius* (Plut. de Def. Orac. p. 419, b.) [P. S.]

EPOCILLUS ('ETro/fiAAos), a Macedonian, was commissioned by Alexander, in B. c. 330, to con­duct as many of the Thessalian cavalry and of the other allied troops as wished. to .return home, as far as the sea-coast, where Menes was desired to make arrangements for their passage to Euboea. In b. c. 328, when Alexander was in winter quarters at Nautaca, he sent Epocillus with Sopolis and Menidas to bring reinforcements from Mace­donia. (Arr. Anab. iii. 19, iv. 18.) [E. E.]

EPONA ("iTTTrajya), from epus ('/ttttos), that is, equus, was regarded as the protectress of horses. Images of her, either statues or paintings, were fre­ quently seen in niches of stables. She was said to be the daughter of Fulvius Stellus by a mare. (Juven. viii. 157; Plut. Parall. Gr. et Rom. .p. 312 ; Hartung, Die Religion der Rwner, vol. ii. p. 154.) • [L. S.]

EPOPEUS ('ETrwTrgy'y), a son of Poseidon and Canace. He came from Thessaly to Sicyon, where he succeeded in the kingdom, as Corax died with­ out leaving any heir to his throne. He carried away from Thebes the beautiful Antiope, the daughter of Nycteus, who therefore made war upon Epopeus. The two hostile kings died of the wounds which they received in the war; but pre­ vious to his death Epopeus dedicated a temple to Athena. (Paus. ii. 6. § 1; Apollod. i. 7. § 4.) A different tradition about Epopeus is related under amphion, No. 1. Pausanias (ii. 1. § 1) calls him a son of Aloeus, whereas he is commonly described as a brother of Aloeus. The temple of Athena which he had built at Sicyon was destroyed by lightning, but his tomb was preserved and shewn there to a very late period. (Pans., ii.: 11. § 1.) Another mythical being of this name occurs in Ovid. (Met. iii. 618, &c.) [L. S.]

EPOPSIUS ('etto>os), that is, the superin­tendent, occurs as a surname of several gods, such as Zeus (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1124), Apollo (Hesych. s. v.; comp. Soph. Philoct. 1040), and of Poseidon at Megalopolis. (Paus. viii. 30. § 1.) [L. S.]

EPOREDORIX, a chieftain of the Aedui, was one of the commanders of the Aeduan cavalry, which, in compliance with Caesar's requisition, was sent to the aid of the Romans against Vercin-getorix, in b. c. 52. He also informed Caesar of the designs of Litavicus, who was endeavouring to

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