The Ancient Library

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On this page: Entochus – Entoria – Enyo – Eos – Epactaeus – Epaenetus


ENTOCHUS, a sculptor, whose Oceanus and Jupiter were in the collection of Asinius Pollio. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 10.) [P. S.]

ENTORIA ('Ei/ropfa), the daughter of a Ro­man countryman. Cronos (Saturn) who was once hospitably received by him, became, by his fair daughter, the father of four sons, Janus, Hymnus, Faustus, and Felix. Cronos taught the father the cultivation of the vine and the preparation of wine, enjoining him to teach his neighbours the same. This was done accordingly, but the country people, who became intoxicated with their new drink, thought it to be poison, and stoned their neighbour to death, whereupon his grandsons hung themselves in their grief. At a much later time, when the Romans were visited by a plague, they were told by the Delphic oracle, that the plague was a punish­ment for the outrage committed on Entoria's father, and Lutatius Catulus caused a temple to be erected to Cronos on the Tarpeian rock, and in it an altar with four faces. (Plut. Parall.Gr. etRom. 9.) [L.S.] . ENYA'LIUS ('Ez/voAios), the warlike, fre­quently occurs in the Iliad (never in the Odyssey) either as an epithet of Ares, or as a proper name instead of Ares. (xvii. 211, ii. 651, vii. 166, viii. 264, xiii. 519, xvii. 259, xviii. 309, xx. 69 ; comp. Pind. Ol. xiii. 102, Nem. ix. 37.) At a later time, however, Enyalius and Ares were distinguished as two different gods of war, and Enyalius was looked upon as a son of Ares and Enyo, or of Cronos and Rhea. (Aristoph. Pax, 457 ; Dionys. A. R. iii. 48 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 944.) The name is evidently derived from Enyo, though one tradition derived it from a Thracian Enyalius, who received into his house those only who conquered him in single combat, and for the same reason refused to receive Ares, but the latter slew him. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 673.) The, youths of Sparta sacrificed young dogs to Ares under the name of Enyalius (Paus. iii. 14. § 9), and near the temple of Hippo-sthenes, at Sparta, there stood the ancient fettered statue of Enyalius. (Paus. iii. 15, § 5 ; comp. ares.) Dionysus, too, is said to have been sur-named Enyalius. (Macrob. Sat. i. 19.) [L. S.]

ENYO ('epvw), the goddess of war, who de­ lights in bloodshed and the destruction of towns, and accompanies Mars in battles. (Horn. 11. v. 333, 592 ; Eustath. p. 140.) At Thebes and Orchomenos, a festival called 'OjuoAe&a was cele­ brated in honour of Zeus, Demeter, Athena and Enyo, and Zeus was said to have received the sur­ name of Homoloius from Homoloi's, a priestess of Enyo. (Suid. s. v. ; comp. Miiller, Orchom. p. 229, 2nd edit.) A statue of Enyo, made by the sons of Praxiteles, stood in the temple of Ares at Athens. (Paus. i. 8. § 5.) Among the Graeae in Hesiod (Theog. 273) there is one called Enyo. Respecting the Roman goddess of war see bel- lona. [L. S.]

EOS ('Hflfc),. in Latin Aurora, the goddess of the morning red, who brings up the light of day from the east. She was a daughter of Hyperion and Theia or Euryphassa, and a sister of He­lios and Selene. (Hes. Theog. 371, &c. ; Horn. Hymn in Sol. ii.) Ovid (Met. ix. 420, .Fas*, iv. 373) calls her a daughter of Pallas. At the close of night she rose from the couch of her beloved Tithonus, and on a chariot drawn by the swift horses Lampus and Phaeton she ascended up to heaven from the river Oceanus, to announce the coming light of the sun to the gods as well as to



mortals. (Horn. Od. v. 1, &c., xxiii. 244; Virg. Aen. iv. 129, Georg. i. 446 ; Horn. Hymn in Merc. 185 ; Theocrit. ii. 148, xiii. 11.) In the Homeric poems Eos not only announces the coming Helios, but accompanies him throughout the day, and her career is not complete till the evening ; hence she is sometimes mentioned where one would have ex­pected Helios (Od. v. 390, x. 144) ; and the tragic writers completely identify her with Hemera, of whom in later times the same myths are related as of Eos. (Paus. i. 3. § 1, iii. 18. § 7.) The later Greek and the Roman poets followed, on the whole, the notions of Eos^ which Homer had established, and the splendour of a southern aurora, which lasts much longer than in our climate, is a favourite topic' with the ancient poets. Mythology repre­sents her as having carried off several youths dis­tinguished for their beauty. Thus she carried away Orion, but the gods were angry at her for it, until Artemis with a gentle arrow killed him. (Horn. Od. v. 121.) According to Apollodorus (i. 4. § 4) Eos carried Orion to Delos, and was ever stimulated by Aphrodite. Cleitus, the son of Mantius, was earned by Eos to the seats of the immortal gods (Od. xv. 250), arid Tithonus, by whom she became the mother of Emathion and Memnon, was obtained in like manner. She begged of Zeus to make him immortal, but forgot to request him to add eternal youth. So long as he was young and beautiful, she lived with him at the end of the earth, on the banks of Oceanus ; and when he grew old, she nursed him, until at length his voice disappeared and his body became quite dry. She then locked the body up in her chamber, or metamorphosed it into a cricket. (Horn. Hymn, in Ven. 218, &c.; Horat. Carm. i. 22. 8, ii. 16. 30 ; Apollod. iii. 12. § 4 ; Hes. Theog. 984 ; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 447, iii. 328, Aen. iv. 585.) When her son Memnon was going to fight against Achilles, she asked Hephaestus to give her arms for him, and when Memnon was killed, her tears fell down in the form of morn­ing dew. (Virg. Aen. viii. 384.) By Astraeus Eos became the mother of Zephyrus, Boreas, No-tus, Heosphorus, and the other stars. (Hesiod. T/ieog. 378.) Cephalus was carried away by her from the summit of mount Hymettus to Syria, and by him she became the mother of Phaeton or Tithonus, the father of Phaeton ; but afterwards she restored her beloved to his wife Procris. (Hes. Theog. 984; Apollod. iii. 14. § 3 ; Paus. i. 3. § 1 j Ov. Met. vii. 703, &c> ; Hygin. Fab. 189 ; comp. cephalus.) Eos was represented in the pediment of the kingly stoa at Athens in the act of carrying off Cephalus, and in the same manner she was seen on the throne of the Amy-claean Apollo. (Paus. i. 3. §• 1, iii. 18. $ 7.) At Olympia she was represented in the act of praying to Zeus for Memnon. (v. 22. § 2.) In the works of art still extant, she appears as a winged goddess or in a chariot drawn by four horses. [L. S.]

EPACTAEUS or EPA'CTIUS ('ETraKTCwos or 'EmS/mos), that is, the god worshipped on the coast, was used as a surname of Poseidon in Samoa (Hesych. s. v.), and of Apollo. (Orph. Argon. 1296 ; Apollon. Rhod. i. 404.) [L. S.]

EPAENETUS ('ETTa/i/eros), a culinary author frequently referred to by Athenaeus, wrote one work "On Fishes" (IIe/>i *Jx0*W, Athen. vii. p. 328, £), and another " On the Art of Cook­ery " (*OtyapTVTiK6s, Athen. ii. p. 58, b., iii. p. 88*

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