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has examined the subject most carefully, agrees with Leunclavius in distinguishing the writer from the prelate, and deduces from the internal evidence of his works that the writer lived about a. d. 1120 or 1130.
He wrote (1) Commentaries on several of tlie Orations of Gregory Nazianzen. There are several MSS. extant of these commentaries in the original Greek, but we believe they have never been printed. A Latin version of them, partly new, partly selected from former translations, was published by Billms with his Latin version of ^Gregory's works, and has been repeatedly reprinted. (2.) A Commentary on the KAtjtta^, Climax, "Scala Paradisi^ or Ladder of Paradise of Joannes or John surnamed Scholasticus or Climacus. This commentary, which has never been published, but is extant in MS., is described by Rader in his edition of the Climax, as very bulky. Some extracts are embodied in the Scholia of a later commentator given by Rader.
(3.) An Answer respecting virgins espoused before the age of puberty. This is extant in MS. in the King's Library at Paris, in the catalogue of which the author is described as the metropolitan ,of Crete.
(4.) Answers to Dionysius the Monk on liis seven different questions, given by Binefidius (Juris Orient. Libri, iii. p. 185) and Leunclavius (Jus Gr. Rom. i. p. 335).
It is not known that any other works of his are extant. Nicolaus Commenus in his Praeno-tiones Mystagogicae cites other works, but they are ;pfobably lost. One was On the Morals of tlie Heathens, and the others were Answers to the Monks of Corinth, To the Monks of A sea, and To tlie Solitary Monks. Harless incorrectly ascribes to Elias of Crete the work of Elias or Helias of Charax [see No. 4] on versification. (Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 641; Rader, Isagoge ad Scalam St. Joannis Climaci, prefixed to his edition of that work ; Oudin, Commentarii de Scriptor. et Scriptis Ecclesiasticis, vol. ii. col. 1066, &c.; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. viii. p. 430, ix. p. 525, xi. p. 615; Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum BibliotJiecae Regiae, Paris, 1740.)
6. elias, called, from the ecclesiastical office wliich he'held, ecdicus("ek&kos), or "the Defender," was the author of a Greek work on the Ascetic life, extant in MS. in the .Imperial Library at Vienna, and in the King's Library at Paris. The work is said,to be entitled Unyn vaiova-a.. A Latin version of a part is given in the Biblio-thecaPatrum, vol.xxii. p. 756, &c. ed. Lyons, 1677. In the catalogue of the King's Library at Paris is a Greek MS. containing, among other things, a Florilegium, or selection, said to be by " Helias, Presbyter et Defensor." (Montfaucon, Bibliotheca BibliotJiecarum, p. 548 ; Catal. Codd. MStorum Bibiioth. Regiae, vol. ii. Nos. ccclxii. 6, dccclviii. 21, Paris, 1740; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. Dissert. i. p. 7; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 615.)
7- elias, called "the monk." Leo Allatius in his De Symeonum Scriptis Diatriba (p. 101) mentions a discourse irpoeopriov, on the Nativity, by Elias the Monk. (Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. Diss. i. p. 7, ed> Oxford, 1740—43.)
9. elias syncellus. Leo Allatius has mentioned some hymns or poems addressed to the Virgin Mary, remarkable for their beauty, piety, and elegance: he promised to publish them, but did not fulfil his intention. Among the writers of them he names Elias Syncellus. (Allatius, Notes to Ms edition of Eustathius of Antioch^ p. 284.)
Montfaucon mentions a black-letter MS. apparently in Latin, belonging at that time to the monastery of Caunes in Languedoc$ entitled Requies in Clementinas, by Elias or Helias. But who this Elias was, is not stated, nor whether the work was a version from the Greek, which the name of the writer would lead us to suppose. A MS. entitled Theorica et Practica, by " Helias Salomon," is also mentioned by Montfaucon, but we know nothing of the writer. (Montfaucon, Bibliotheca Bibliotiiecarum, pp. 515, 1241.) [J. C. M.]
ELICAON or HELICAON ('EAzKcW), of Rhegium, a Pythagorean philosopher. He is mentioned along with other Pythagoreans^ who gave good and wholesome laws to Rhegium, and endeavoured to make practical use of the phi losophical principles of their master in the adminis tration of their country. (lamblich. Vit. Pyiliag, -27,30,36.) [L. S.]
ELICIUS, a surname of Jupiter at Rome, where king Numa dedicated to Jupiter Elicius an altar on the Aventine. (Liv. i. 20.) The same king was said to have instituted certain secret rites to be performed in honour of the god, which were recorded in his Commentarii. (Liv. i. 31.) The origin of the name as well as the notion of Jupiter Elicius is referred to the Etruscans, who by certain prayers and sacrifices called forth (eliciebant orevocabant) lightning or invited Jupiter to send lightning. (Plin. H. N. ii. 54; Ov. Fast. iii. 327, &c.; Varro, de Ling. Lot. vi. 94.) The object of calling down lightning was according to Livy's explanation to elicit prodigies ex mentibus divinis; and when the god appeared or sent his lightning in anger, it was an unfortunate sign to the person who had invited it. Seneca (Quaesti Nat. ii. 49) attests that the ancients distinguished a kind of lightning or fulmina, called fulmina hos~ pitalia, which it was possible for man to draw down, and Pliny mentions Numa, Tullus Hostilius, and Porsena, among the persons who in early times had called down lightning, though Tullus and his family perished in the attempt. Some modern writers think that the belief in the pos sibility of-.calling down lightnings arose out of certain observations or experiments in electricity, with which the ancients were acquainted, and some have even ventured upon the supposition that the ancients, and the Etruscans in particular, knew the use of conductors of lightning, which, though they cannot draw lightning from heaven, yet conduct it towards a certain point. Servius (ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 42) goes even so far as to.say that the art of drawing down lightning was known to Prometheus. [L. S.]
ELLOPION ('EAAoTrfcoj/), of Peparethus, a Socratic philosopher, who is mentioned only by Plutarch. (De Gen. Socrat. p. 578, f,) [L. S.]