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faithful historian, grave, judicious, prudent, and impartial, and his account of the causes of the ruin of the Greek empire is full of sagacity and wis­ dom. Ducas, Chalcondylas, and Phranza, are the chief sources for the last period of the Greek empire; but Ducas surpasses both of them by his clear narrative and the logical arrangement of his matters. He was less learned than Chalcondylas, but, on the other hand, he was without doubt thoroughly acquainted with the Turkish language, no small advantage for a man who wrote the his­ tory of that time. The editio princeps of the work is by Bulliaud (Bullialdus), " Historia Byzantina a Joanne Palaeologo I. ad Mehemetem II. Ac- cessit Chronicon breva (xpovtKov crvvropov), etc. Versione Latina et Notis ab Ismael Bullialdo," Paris, 1649, fol, reprinted at Venice, 1729, fol. It has been also edited by Immanuel Bekker, Bonn, 1834, 8vo. Bekker perused the same Parisian codex as Bulliaud, but he was enabled to correct many errors by an Italian MS., being an Italian translation of Ducas, with a continuation in the same language, which was found about twenty years ago by Leopold Ranke in one of the libraries at Venice. This MS. was first published by Mustodoxi in the 19th volume of the "Antologia." It also forms a valuable addition to the edition of Bekker. (Fabric. BibL Graec. viii. pp. 33, 34; Hankins, Script. Byzant. pp. 640—644 ; Hammer, Geschiclde des Osman. Reiches, vol. ii. p. 69, not. b. p. 72.) [W. P.] DUCE'NNIUS GE'MINUS. [geminus.] DUCE'TIUS (AotweW), a chief of the Sice- lians, or Sicels, the native tribes in the interior of Sicily. He is styled king of the Sicelians by Dio- dorus (xi. 78), and is said to have been of illus­ trious descent. After the expulsion of the family of Gelon from Syracuse (b. c. 466), Ducetius suc­ ceeded in uniting all the Sicelians of the interior into one nation, and in order to give them a com­ mon centre founded the city of Palice in the plain below Menaenum. (Diod. xi. 88.) He had previ­ ously made war on the Catanaeans, and expelled from that city the new colonists who had been sent there by Hiero, who thereupon took posses­ sion of Inessa, the name of which they changed to Aetna; but Ducetius subsequently reduced this city also, (Diod. xi. 76, 91.) An attack upon a small place in the territory of Agrigentum involved him in hostilities not only with the Agrigentines, but the Syracusans also, who defeated him in a great battle. The consequence of this was that he was deserted by all his followers, and fearing to be betrayed into the hands of the enemy, he took the daring resolution of repairing at once to Syra­ cuse as a suppliant, and placing himself at their mercy. The Syracusans spared his life, but sent him into an honourable exile at Corinth. (Diod. xi. 91, 92.) Here however he did not remain long, but having assembled a considerable band of colonists, returned to Sicily, and founded the city of Calacte on the north coast of the island. He was designing again to assert his supremacy over all the Sicelian tribes when his projects were in­ terrupted by his death, about 440, b. c. (Diod. xii. 8, 29 ; Wesseling, ad loc.) [E. H. B.]

DUILIA or DUI'LLIA GENS, plebeian. The plebeian character of this gens is attested by the fact of M. Duilius being tribune of the plebs in b. c. 471, and further by the statement of Dio-nysius (x. 58), who expressly says, that the de-


cemvir K. Duilius and two of his colleagues were plebeians. In Livy (iv. 3) we indeed read, that all the decemvirs had been patricians; but this must be regarded as a mere hasty assertion which Livy puts into the mouth of the tribune Canuleius, for Livy himself in another passage (v. 13) ex­ pressly states, that C. Duilius, the military tribune, was a plebeian. The only cognomen that occurs in this gens is longus. [L. S.]

Din'LIUS. 1. M. duilius, was tribune of the plebs in b. c. 471, in which year the tribunes were for the first time elected in the comitia of the tribes. In the year following, M. Duilius and his colleague, C. Sicinus, summoned Appius Claudius Sabinus, the consul of the year previous, before the assembly of the people, for the violent opposition he made to the agrarian law of Sp. Cassius. [clau­dius, No. 2.) Twenty-two years later, b. c. 449, when the commonalty rose against the tyranny of the decemvirs, he acted as one of the champions of his order, and it was on his advice that the plebeians migrated from the Aventine to the Mons Sacer, When the decemvirs at length were obliged to resign, and the commonalty had returned to the Aventine, M. Duilius and C. Sicinus were invested with the tribuneship a second time, and Duilius immediately proposed and carried a rogation, that consuls should be elected, from whose sentence an appeal to the people should be left open. He then carried a plebiscitum, that whoever should leave the plebs without its tribunes, or create any magistrate with­out leaving an appeal to the people open against his verdicts, should be scourged and put to death. M. Duilius was a noble and high-minded champion of his order, and acted throughout that turbulent period with a high degree of moderation and wisdom. He kept the commonalty as well as his more vehement colleagues within proper bounds, for after sentence had been passed on the decemvirs, and when the tribunes appeared to wish to carry their revenge still further, Duilius declared that there had been enough punishment and hostility, and that, in the course of that year, he would not allow any fresh accusation to be brought forward, nor any person to be thrown into prison. This declaration at once allayed the fears of the patri­cians. When the tribunes for the next year were to be elected, the colleagues of Duilius agreed among themselves to continue in office for another year; but Duilius, who happened to preside at the election, refused to accept any votes for the re-election of his colleagues. They were obliged to submit to the law, and M. Duilius resigned his office and withdrew. (Liv. ii. 58, 61, iii. 52-54, 59, 64 ; Diod. xi. 68; Dionys. xi. 46; Cic. de Re PulL ii. 31.)

2. K. duilius, was elected together with two other plebeians as decemvir for the year b. c. 450, and as in that year a war broke out with the Aequians and Sabines, K. Duilius and four of his colleagues were sent to Mount Algidus against the Aequians. After the abolition of the decemvirate, and when some of the decemvirs had been punish­ed, Duilius escaped from sharing their fate by going into voluntary exile, whereupon his property, like that of the others who withdrew from Rome, was publicly sold by the quaestors. (Liv. iii. 35. 41, 58 ; Dionys. x. 58, xi. 23, 46.)

3. K. duilius, was consul in b. c. 336, and two years later triumvir fcr the purpose of con­ducting a colony to Cales, a town of the Ausonians

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