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DIONYSIUS.

to have lived till the establishment of the Macedo­ nian supremacy in Greece. We have the titles and some fragments of his 3A.Kovn£6fjL£vos (Ath. xiv. p. 664, d.), which appears to have been trans­ lated by Naevius, ©ecr/j-o^opos (a long passage in A then. ix. p. 404, e.), 'OjuaW^oj ( Athen. viii. p. 381, c., xiv. p. 615, e.), At/xos (Schol. Horn. //. xi, 515 ; Eustath. p. 859. 49), 2co£"owa or 2cor€ipa (Athen. xi. pp. 467, d., 497, d= ; Stob. Serin, cxxv. 8.) Meursius and Fabricius are wrong in assigning the Ta£tapx«i to Dionysius. It belongs to eupolis. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Grace, i. pp. 419, 420, iii. pp. 547—555.] [P. S.]

DIONYSIUS, artists. 1. Of Argos, a statuary, who was employed together with Glaucus in mak­ing the works which Smicythus dedicated at Olym-pia. This fixes the artistVtime; for Smicythus succeeded Anaxilas as tyrant of Rhegium in b. c. 476. The works executed by Dionysius were sta­tues of Contest (Ayuv) carrying aArijpes (Diet, of Ant. s. v.}, of Dionysius, of Orpheus, and of Zeus without a beard. (Pans. v. 26. §§ 3—6.) He also made a horse and charioteer in bronze, which were among the works dedicated at Olympia by Phormis of Maenalus, the contemporary of Ge-lon and Hiero. (Paus. v. 27. § 1.)

2. A sculptor, who made the statue of Hera which Octavian afterwards placed in the portico of Octavia. (Plin. xxxvi. 5, s. 4. § 10.) Juirius takes this artist to be the same as the former, but Sillig argues, that in the time of the elder Dionysius the art of sculpturing marble was not brought to suffi­cient perfection to allow us to ascribe one of its masterpieces to him,

3. Of Colophon, a painter, contemporary with Polygnotus of Thasos, whose works he imitated in their accuracy, expression (rcdOos), manner (??0os), in the treatment of the form, in the delicacy of the drapery, and in every other respect except in gran­deur. (Aelian. V. H. iv. 3.) Plutarch (Timol. 36) speaks of his works as having strength and tone, but as forced and laboured. Aristotle (Poet. 2) says that Polygnotus painted the likenesses of men better than the originals, Pauson made them worse, and Dionysius just like them (opoiovs). It seems from this that the pictures of Dionysius were defi­cient in the ideal. It was no doubt for this rea­son that Dionysius was called Antliropograplms, like demetrius. It is true that Pliny, from whom we learn the fact, gives a different reason, namely, that Dionysius was so called because he painted only men, and not landscapes (xxxv. 10. s. 37); but this is only one case out of many in which Pliny's ignorance of art has caused him to give a false interpretation of a true fact. Sillig applies this passage to the later Dionysius (No. 4), but without any good reason.

4. A painter, who flourished at Rome at the same time as Sopolis and Lala of Cyzicus, about b.c. 84. Pliny says of him and Sopolis, that they were the most renowned painters of that age, except Lala, and that their works filled the picture gal­ leries (xxxv. 11, s. 40. § 43). [P. S.]

DIONYSIUS (Atowcrios), the name of several physicians and surgeons, whom it is sometimes difficult to distinguish with certainty.

1. A native of aegae (but of which place of this name does not appear), who must have lived in or before the ninth century after Christ, as he is quoted by Photius (Biblioth. §§ 185, 211, pp. 129, 168, ed. Bekkcr), but how much earlier he

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DIONYSIUS.

lived is uncertain. It is not known whether he was himself a physician, but he wrote a work en­titled At/cTua/ca, in which he discussed various medical questions. It consisted of one hundred, chapters, the -heads of which have been preserved by Photius, and shew that he wrote both in favour of each proposition, and also against it. The title of his book has been supposed to allude to his teaching his readers to argue on both sides of a question, and thus to catch their hearers, as it were, in a net.

2. A native of cvrtus (Kupros) in Egypt, who was mentioned by Herennius Philo in his lost His­tory of Medicine. Stephanus Byzantinus (s.v. Kvp-tos) calls him $10,0-7)/no s larpos. His date is uncer­tain, but if (as Meursius conjectures) he is the same person who is quoted by Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Chron. ii. 13, p. 416), he may be sup­posed to have lived in the third century B. c. (Meursius, Dionysius, <$£c. in Opera, vol. v.)

3. A native of miletus, in Caria, must have lived in or before the second century after Christ, as he is quoted by Galen, who has preserved some of his medical formulae. (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, iv. 7, vol. xii. p. 741; De Antid. ii. 11, vol. xiv. p. 171.) He may perhaps be the same person who is mentioned by Galen without any distinguishing epithet. (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, iv. 8, vol. xii. p. 760.)

4. Son of oxymachus, appears to have written some anatomical work, which is mentioned by Rufus Ephesius. (De Appell. Part. Corp. Hum. p. 42.) He was either a contemporary or prede­cessor of Eudemus, and therefore lived probably in the fourth or third century b. c.

5. Of samos, whose medical formulae are quot­ed by Galen (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. iv. 13, vol. xiii. p. 745), is supposed by Meursius (/. c.) to be the same person as the son of Muso-nius; but, as K'uhn observes (Additam. ad Elench. Medicor. Vet. a Fabricio in "Biblioth. Graeca" eochib. fascic. xiv. p. 7), from no other reason, than because both are said to have been natives of Sa-mos (nor is even this quite certain), whereas from the writings of the son of Musonius there is no ground for believing him to have been a physician, or even a collector of medical prescriptions.

6. sallustius dionysius, is quoted by Pliny (H. N. xxxii. 26), and therefore must have lived in or before the first century after Christ.

7. cassius dionysius. [cassius, p. 626.]

8. Dionysius, a surgeon, quoted by Scribonius Largus (Compos. Medicam. c. 212, ed. Rhod.), who lived probably at or before the beginning of the Christian era.

9. A physician, who was a contemporary of Galen in the second century after Christ, and is mentioned as attending the son of Caecilianus, to whom Galen wrote a letter full of medical advice, which is still extant. (Galen, Pro Puero Epilept. ConsiL, in Opera, vol. xi. p. 357.)

10. A fellow-pupil of Heracleides of Tarentum, who must have lived probably in the third century b. c., and one of whose medical formulae is quoted by Galen. (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos9 v. 3, vol. xii. p. 835.)

11. A physician who belonged to the medical sect of the Methodici, and who lived probably in the first century b. c. (Galen, d& Metli. Med. i. 7, vol. x. p. 53 ; Introd. c. 4, vol. xiv. p. 684.)

12. The physician mentioned by Galen (Com-

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