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Nysaeus, subsequently obtained the supreme power, and was in possession of it when Dionysius pre­sented himself before Syracuse with a fleet, and became master of the city by treachery. Accord­ing .to Plutarch, this took place in the tenth year after his expulsion, b. c. 346. (Diod. xvi. 31, 36; Justin, xxi. 3; Athen. xi. p. 508; Plut. Timol. 1.) The Locrians meanwhile took advan­tage of his absence to revolt against him : they drove out the garrison which he had left, and wreaked their vengeance in the most cruel manner on his wife and daughters. (Strab. vi, p. 260 ; Cle-arch. ap. Athen. xii. p. 541.) Dionysius was not however able to reestablish himself firmly in his former power. Most of the other cities of Sicily had shaken off the yoke of Syracuse, and were governed severally by petty tyrants : one of these, Hicetas, who had established himself at Leontini, afforded a rallying point to the disaffected iSyra-cusans, with whom he joined in making war on Dionysius, and succeeded in gaining possession of the greater part of the city, and blockading the tyrant anew in the fortress on the island. It was in this state of things that Timoleon arrived in Sicily. His arms were not indeed directed in the first instance against Dionysius, but against Hice­tas and his Carthaginian allies; but his rapid suc­cesses and the general respect entertained for his character induced Dionysius, who was still block­aded in the citadel, and appears to have abandoned all hope of ultimate success, to treat with him ra­ther than the opposite party. He accordingly sur­rendered the fortress of Ortygia into the hands of Timoleon, on condition of being allowed to depart in safety to Corinth, b. c. 343. (Diod. xvi. 65-70; Plut. Timol. 8—13.) Here he spent the remainder of his life in a private condition, and is said to have frequented low company, and sunk gradually into a very degraded and abject state. According to some writers, he was reduced to support himself by keeping a school; others say, that he became one of the attendants on the rites of Cybele, a set of mendicant priests of the lowest class. His weak and voluptuous character render these stories by no means improbable, although it seems certain that he was in the first instance allowed to take with him a considerable portion of his wealth, and must have occupied an honourable position, as we find him admitted to familiar intercourse with Phi­lip of Macedon. Some anecdotes are preserved of him that indicate a ready wit and considerable shrewdness of observation. (Plut. Timol. 14, 15 ; Justin, xxi. 5; Clearch. ap. Athen. xii. p. 541 : Aelian, V. H. vi. 12; Cic. Tusc. in, 12.)

There are no authentic coins of either of the two Dionysii: probably the republican forms were still so far retained, notwithstanding their virtual .despotism, that all coins struck under their rule bore the name of the city only. According to Miiller (Archaol. d. Kunst. p. 128), the splendid silver coins, of the weight of ten drachms, com-inonly known as Syracusan medallions, belong for



the most part to the period of their two reigns. Certain Punic coins, one of which is represented in the annexed cut, are commonly ascribed to the younger Dionysius, but only on the authority of Goltzius (a noted falsifier of coins and their in­ scriptions), who has published a similar coin with the name AIONT2IOT. [E. H. B.]

DIONYSIUS, PAPI'RIUS, praefectus an- nonae under Comniodus. Having procured by his intrigues the destruction of the favourite Cleander [oleander], he himself soon after fell a victim to the cruelty of the tyrant. (Dion Cass. Ixxii. 13,14.) [W. R.]

DIONYSIUS ( Aiovvffios ), literary. The number of persons of this name in the history of Greek literature is very great, Meursius was the first that collected a list of them and added some account of each (Gronov. Thesaur. Ant. Graec. x. p. 577, &c.); his list has been still further in­creased by lonsius (ffist. Philos. Script, iii. 6, p. 42, &c.), and by Fabricius (Bill. Gr. iv. p. 405), so that at present upwards of one hundred persons of the name of Dionysius are known. The list given by Suidas is full of the utmost confusion. The following list contains all, with the exception of those mentioned in an isolated passage merely.

1. aelius dionysius, a Greek rhetorician of Halicarnassus, who lived in the time of the em­peror Hadrian. He was a very skilful musician, and wrote several works on music and its history. (Suid. s. v. Aiov6(rios.} It is commonly supposed that he was a descendant of the elder Dionysius of Halicarnassus, the author of the Roman Archaeo­logy. Respecting his life nothing further is known. The following works, which are now lost, are attri­buted to him by the ancients : 1. A Dictionary of Attic words ('Am/cd dvo^aroC) in five books, dedi­cated to one Scymnus. Photius (B'M. Cod. 152) speaks in high terms of its usefulness, and states, that Aelius Dionysius himself made two editions of it, the second of which was a great improvement upon the first. Both editions appear to have ex­isted in the time of Photius. It seems to have been owing to this work that Aelius Dionysius was called sometimes by the surname of Atticista. Meursius was of opinion that our Dionysius was the author of the work irepl aKXirwv prj/uaTwv Kal €yK\ivo/j.£v<>0v Aelecoy, which was published by Aldus Manutius (Venice, 1496) in the volume en­titled " Horti Adonidis ;" but there is no evidence for this supposition. (Comp. Schol. Venet. ad Iliad. xv. 705; Villoison, Prolegom. ad Horn. IL p. xxix.) 2. A history of Music (/aovctikt) iffropia) in 3b' books, with accounts of citharoedi, auletae, and poets of all kinds. (Suid. /. c.) 3. 'Pvd/niKa viro/u.-vrf/naTa, in 24 books. (Suid. /. c.) 4. Mowri/cijs Trat-Sei'a 17 SiarpiGai, in 22 books. (Suid. I. c.) 5. A work in five books on what Plato had said about music in his TroAtreta. (Suid. 1. c.; Eudoc. p. 131.)

2. Bishop of alexandria, was probably a native of the same city. He was born of pagan parents, who were persons of rank and influence. He studied the doctrines of the various philoso­phical sects, and this led him at last to embrace Christianity. Origen, who was one of his teachers, had probably great influence upon this step of his pupil. After having been a presbyter for some time, he succeeded, about a. d. 232, Heraclas as the head of the theological school at Alexandria, and after the death of Heraclas. who had been raised to the bishopric of Alexandria, Dionysius

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