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can stand out of the sunshine." Considering, how­ever, that this must have happened soon after Alexander's accession, and before his Persian ex­pedition, he could not have called himself the Great, which title was not conferred on him till he had gained his Eastern victories, after which he never returned to Greece. These considerations, with others, are sufficient to banish this anecdote, to­gether with that of the tub, from the domain of history; and, considering what rich materials so peculiar a person as Diogenes must have afforded for amusing stories, we need not wonder if a few have come down to us of somewhat doubtful genu­ineness. We are told, however, that Alexander admired Diogenes so much that he said, " If I were not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes." (Plut. Ale-%, c. 14.) Some say, that after Dio­genes became a resident at Corinth, he still spent every winter at Athens, and he is also accused of various scandalous offences, but of these there is no proof; and the whole bearing of tradition about him shews that, though a strange fanatic, he was a man of great excellence of life, and pro­bably of real kindness, since Xeniades compared his arrival to the entrance of a good genius into his house.

With regard to the philosophy of Diogenes there is little to say, as he was utterly without any sci­ entific object whatever. His system, if it deserve the name, was purely practical, and consisted merely in teaching men to .dispense with the sim­ plest and most necessary wants (Diog. Laert. vi. 70) ; and his whole style of teaching was a kind of caricature upon that of Socrates, whom he imi­ tated in imparting instruction to persons whom he casually met, and with a still more supreme con­ tempt for time, place, and circumstances. Hence he was sometimes called "the mad Socrates." He did not commit his opinions to writing, and there­ fore those attributed to him cannot be certainly relied on. The most peculiar, if correctly stated, was, that all minds are air, exactly alike, and com- I posed of similar particles, but that in the irrational animals and in idiots, they are hindered from pro­ perly developing themselves by the arrangement ! and various humours of their bodies. (Pint. Plac. Phil. v. 20.) This resembles the Ionic doctrine, and has been referred by Brucker (Hist. Crit. Phil. ii. 2. ]. § 21) to Diogenes of Apollonia. The statement in Suidas, that Diogenes was once called Cleon, is probably a false reading for Kvw. He died at the age of nearly ninety, b. c. 323, in the same year that Epicurus came to Athens to circu- late opinions the exact opposite to his. It was | also the year of Alexander's death, and as Plu­ tarch tells us (Sympos. viii. 71,7), both died on the \ same day. If so, this was probably the 6th of Thargelion. (Clinton, F. II. vol. ii.; Ritter, Gesch. dor Philosophic, vii. 1, 4.) [G. E. L. C.]

DIOGENES LAERTIUS(Aw7W oAaeprios or Aae/meus, sometimes also Aaepnos Aioyevris], the author of a sort of history of philosophy, which alone has brought his name down to posterity. The surname, Laertius, was derived according to some from the Roman family which bore the cog­nomen Laertius, and one of the members of which is supposed to have been the patron of an ancestor of Diogenes. But it is more probable that he re­ceived it from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, which seems to have been his native place. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, v. p. 564, note). A modern critic (Ranke,


deLex. Hesych. p. 59, &c.61,&c.) supposes that his real name was Diogenianus, and that he was the same as the Diogenianus of Cyzicus, who is men­tioned by Suidas. This supposition is founded on a passage of Tzetzes, (ChiL iii. 61,) in which Dio­genes Laertius is mentioned under the name of Dio­genianus. (Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 263, ed. Westermann.) We have no information whatever respecting his life, his studies, or his age. Plu­tarch, Sextus Empiricus and Saturninus are the latest writers he quotes, and he accordingly seems to have lived towards the close of the second cen­tury after Christ Others, however, assign to him a still later date, and place him in the time of Alex­ander Severus and his successors, or even as late as the time of Constantine. His work consists of ten books (0iAoo"o<£oi /3£ot, in Phot. Bibl. Cod. cxxi; </>iAocro</>os Iffropia in Steph. Byz., (rofyiffTwv fiioi in Eustath) and is called in MSS. by the long title of Trept ft'uav, SoyfiaTtoV /ecu dTro^dey^aToov twv ez/ (pi\oaro(pLa, evdoiafjWjcrdvTwv. According to some allusions which occur in it, he wrote it for a lady of rank (iii. 47, x, 2.9), who occupied herself with philosophy, especially with the study of Plato. According to some this lady was Arria, the philoso­phical friend of Galen ( Theriac. ad Pison. 3), and according to others Julia Domna, the wife of the Emperor Severus. (Menage, 1. c. ad Prooem. p. 1 ; Th. Reinesius, Var. Led. ii. 12.) The dedication, however and the prooemium are lost, so that no­thing can be said with certainty.

The plan of the work is as follows: He begins with an introduction concerning the origin and the earliest history of philosophy, in which he refutes the opinion of those who did not seek for the first beginnings of philosophy in Greece itself, but among the barbarians. He then divides the philosophy of the Greeks into the Ionic—which commences with Anaximander and ends with Cleitomachus, Chrysip-pus, and Theophrastus—and the Italian, which was founded by Pythagoras, and ends with Epicurus. He reckons the Socratic school, with its various ra­mifications, as a part of the Ionic philosophy, of which he treats in the first seven books. The Eleatics, with Heracleitus and the Sceptics, are in­cluded in the Italian philosophy, which occupies the eighth and ninth books. Epicurus and his phi­losophy, lastly, are treated of in the tenth book with particular minuteness, which has led some writers to the belief that Diogenes himself was an Epicurean.

Considering the loss of all the numerous and com­prehensive works of the ancients, in which the his­tory of philosophers and of philosophy was treated of either as a whole or in separate portions, and a great number of which Diogenes himself had before him, the compilation of Diogenes is of incalculable value to us as a source of information concerning the history of Greek philosophy. About forty writers on the lives and doctrines of the Greek philoso­phers are mentioned in his work, and in all two hundred and eleven authors are cited whose works he made use of. His work has for a long time been the foundation of most modern histories of ancient philosophy \ and the works of Brucker and Stanley, as far as the early history of philo­sophy is concerned, are little more than transla­tions, and sometimes amplifications, of Diogenes Laertius. The work of Diogenes contains a rich store of living features, which serve to illus­trate the private life of the Greeks, and a con­siderable number of fragments of works which are

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