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DIOGENES.

stationed in Media. In b. c. 210, when Antiochus pursued Arsaces II. into Hyrcania, Diogenes was appointed commander of the vanguard, and distin­ guished himself during the march. (Polyb. v. 46, 48, 54, x. 29, 30.) [L. S.]

DIOGENES(Aio76^s), literary. 1. With the praenomen antonius, the author of a Greek romance, whom some critics have placed soon after the time of Alexander, while others, and with more probability, have placed him in the second or third century after Christ. His age was unknown even to Photius, who has preserved (Cod. 166) an outline of his romance. It consisted of twenty-four books, was written in the form of a dialogue about travels, and bore the title of Ta vwep ©ovXyv arrtcrra. (Comp. Porphyr. Vit. Pyihag. 10.) It is highly praised by Photius for the clearness and gracefulness of its descriptions. The epitome pre­served by Photius is printed also in the " Corpus Eroticcrum Graecorum," vol. i. edited by Passow.

2. Of apollonja. See below.

3. Surnamed the babylonian, a Stoic philoso­pher. He was a native of Seleuceia in Babylonia, from which he derived his surname in order to distinguish him from other philosophers of the name of Diogenes. He was educated at Athens under the auspices of Chrysippus, and succeeded Zeno of Tarsus as the head of the Stoic school at Athens. The most memorable event of his life is the part he took in the embassy which the Athe­nians sent to Rome in b. c. 155, and which con­sisted of the three philosophers, Diogenes, Carne-ades, and Critolaus. These three philosophers, during their stay at Rome, delivered their epideictic speeches at first in numerous private assemblies, and afterwards also in the senate. Diogenes pleased Ms audience chiefly by his sober and tem­perate mode of speaking. (Gell. vii. 14 ; Cic. A'cad. ii. 45 ; comp. carneades and critolaus.) According to Lucian(MamA 20),Diogenes died at the age of 88 ; and as, in Cicero's Cato Major (7), Diogenes is spoken of as deceased, he must have died previous to b. c. 151. Diogenes, who is called a great Stoic (inagnus et gravis Stoicus, Cic. de Off. iii. 12), seems to have closely followed the views of his master, Chrysippus, especially on subjects of dialectics, in which Diogenes is even said to have instructed Carneades. (Cic. A cad. ii. 30, de Oral. ii. 38.) He was the author of several works, of which, however, little more than the titles is known. 1. AjaAe/cT/K^ rex^r]. (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 51.) 2. On Divination. (Cic. deDivin. i. 3, ii. 43.) 3. On the goddess Athena, whose birth he, like Chrysippus, explained by physiological principles. (Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 15.) 4. rie/ot tou rrjs fyvxrjs rjyrilAovMov. (Galen.) 5. Hepl fywviis (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 55), which seems to have treated on the philo­sophy of language. 6. Tiepl evyeveias, or on aris­tocracy of birth, in several books. (Athen. iv. p. 168.) 7. riejol vojJLtaVj likewise in several books, the first of which is quoted in Athenaeus (xii. p. 526 ; comp. Cic. de Leg. iii. 5, where Dio is a false reading for Diogenes). There are several passages in Cicero from which we may infer that Diogenes wrote on other subjects also, such as on Duty, on the Highest Good, and the like, but the titles of those works are unknown. (Cic. de Off, iii. 12, 13, 23, de Fin. iii. 10, 15 ; comp. C. F. Thier'y, Dis-sertatio de Diogene Babylonia, Lovanii, 1830, p. 17, &c., and Pars poster, p. 30, &c.)

4. The cynic philosopher. Sec below.

DIOGENES.

There were two other Cynic philosophers of this name, one in the reign of Vespasian (Dion Cass. xlvi. 15), and the other in the reign of Julian, who praises him in one of his Epistles (35, p.410)

5. Of CYZICUS. [DlOGENIANUS.]

6. The author of a work on persia, of which the first book is quoted by Clemens of Alexandria. (Protrept. p. 19.) It is uncertain whether he is the same as the Diogenes who is mentioned by Parthenius (Erot. 6) as the author of a work on Pallene.

7. laertius. See below.

8. oenomaus. See below.

9. A phoenician, a Peripatetic philosopher, who lived in the time of Simplicius. (Suid. s. v, TTjoe'croets.) Whether he is the same as Diogenes of Abila in Phoenicia, whom Suidas and Stephanus Byzantius (s.t?.*A&Aa) call a distinguished sophist, cannot be ascertained.

10. A phrygian, is described as an atheist, but is otherwise unknown. (Aelian, F. H. ii. 31 ; comp. Eustath. ad Horn. Od. iii. 381.)

11. Of ptolemais in Egypt, a Stoic philoso­pher, who made ethics the basis of his philosophy. (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 41.)

12. Of rhodes, a Greek grammarian, who used to hold disputations at Rhodes every seventh day. Tiberius once wanted to hear him; but as it was not the usual day for disputing, the gram­marian bade him come again on the seventh day. Afterwards Diogenes came to Rome, and when he asked permission to pay his homage, the emperor did not admit him, but requested him to 'come again after the lapse of seven years. (Suet. Tiber. 32.)

13. Of seleuceia, an Epicurean philosopher, who has frequently been confounded with Diogenes the Babylonian, who was likewise a native of Se­leuceia. He lived at the court of Syria, and on terms of intimacy with king Alexander, the suppo­sititious son of Antiochus Epiphanes. But he was put to death soon after the accession of Antio­chus Theus, in b. c. 142. (Athen. v. p. 211.)

14. Of sicyon, is mentioned by Diogenes Lae'r-tius (vi. 81) as the author of a work on Pelopon­nesus.

15. Of smyrna, an Eleatic philosopher, who was a disciple of Metrodorus and Protagoras. (Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 301.)

16. Of tarsus, an Epicurean philosopher, who is described by Strabo (xiv. p. 675) as a person clever in composing extempore tragedies. He was the author of several works, which, however, are lost. Among them are mentioned : 1. 'EmAe/croi <TX0Aa/, which was probably a collection of essays or dissertations on philosophical subjects. (Diog. Lae'rt. x. 26, with Menage's note.) 2. An abridge­ment of the Ethics of Epicurus (e7aro,u?} t&v 'E?ri-icovpov riQiK&v ^TT^arwz/), of which Diogenes Laertius (x. 118) quotes the 12th book. 3. Tlspl TroiT]TLK<£v tyry/uaTM, that is, on poetical problems, which he endeavoured to solve, and which seem to have had especial reference to the Homeric poems. (Diog. Lae'rt. vi. 81.) Further particulars are not known about him, though Gassendi (d& Vit. Epicur. ii. 6) represents him as a disciple of Demetrius the Laconian.

There are several more literary persons of the name of Diogenes, concerning whom nothing is known. A list of them is given by Thicry, /. c, p. 97, &c. [L. S.j

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