Scanned text contains errors.
blishment of his power in Bactria are very uncertain. It seems clear, however, that he was at first satrap or governor of that province, under the Syrian monarchy, and that he took advantage of his sovereign's being engaged in wars in distant parts of his dominions to declare himself independent. The remote and secluded position of his territories, and the revolt of the Parthians under Arsaces, almost immediately afterwards, appear to have prevented any attempt on the part of the Syrian monarch to reduce him again to subjection. At a later period, when Seleucus Callinicus undertook his expedition against Parthia, he appears to have entered into alliance with Diodotus, and may perhaps have confirmed him in the possession of his sovereignty, to secure his co-operation against Tiridates. Diodotus, however, died apparently just about.this time. (Justin. xli. 4; Strab. xi. p. 515; compare Wilson's A riana, pp. 215—219; Droysen's HeUenismus,i\. pp. 325, 412, 760; Raoul Rochette Journ. des Savans, Oct. 1835.)
With regard to the date of the revolt of Diodotus, it appears from Strabo and Justin to have preceded that of Arsaces in Parthia, and may therefore be referred with much probability to the latter part of the reign of Antiochus II. in Syria. b. c. 261—246. [See arsaces, p. 354, a.] The date usually received is 256 b. c,, but any such precise determination rests only on mere conjecture.
Concerning the Bactrian kings in general see Bayer, Historia Regni Graecorwn Bactriani) 4to, Petrop. 1738 ; Lassen, Zur Gescliiclite der Griechis- clien und Indo-Skytischen Konige in Baktrien, 8vo. Bonn, 1838 ; Wilson's Ariana Antiqua, 4to. Lond. 1841. [E. H. B.]
DIODOTUS II., the son and successor of the preceding, is called by Justin Theodotus, as well as his father. According to that author, he aban doned his father's policy, and concluded a treaty with the king of Parthia, Tiridates, by which he joined him against Seleucus Callinicus. (Justin. xli. 4.) The total defeat of the Syrian king pro bably secured the independence of Bactria, as well as that of Parthia; but we know nothing more of the history of Diodotus. The commencement of his reign may be dated somewhere about 240 b. c. (Wilson's Ariana, p. 217.) [E. H. B.]
DIODOTUS (A^Soros), literary. 1. Of ery-thrae, was, according to Athenaeus (x. p. 434), the author of ec/^epiSes 'AAe^aj/Spou, from which we may infer that he was a contemporary of Alexander the Great.
2. A Greek grammarian, who, according to Diogenes Laertius (ix. 15), commented on the writings of Heracleitus.
3. A peripatetic philosopher, of Sidon, is mentioned only by Strabo (xvi. p. 757).
4. Surnamed petronius, was the author of Anthologumena and other works. He is often referred to by Pliny, and is the same as the physician mentioned below.
5. A stoic philosopher, who lived for many years at Rome in the house of Cicero, who had known him from his childhood, and always entertained great love and respect for him. He instructed Cicero, and trained and exercised his intellectual powers, especially in dialectics. In his later years, Diodotus became blind, but he nevertheless continued to occupy himself with literary pursuits and with teaching geometry. He died in Cicero's house, in b. c. 59? and left to his friend
a property of about 100,000 sesterces. (Cic. ad. Fain. ix. 4, xiii. 16, de Nat. Deor. i. 3, Brut. 90, Acad. ii. 36, Tusc. v. 39, ad Alt. ii. 20.) [L. S.]
DIODOTUS (Aio'Soros), a Greek physician, who is called by Pliny (H. N. xx. 32) Petronius Diodotus, though it is not unlikely that (as Fabri- cius conjectures) we should read Petronius et Dio dotus, as Petronius is distinguished from Diodotus by Dioscorides (De Mat. Med. praef. p. 2), and S. Epiphanius. (Adv. Haeres. i. 1. 3, p. 3, ed. Colon. 1682.) He must have lived some time in or before the first century after Christ, and wrote a work on botany. [ W. A. G.]
DIOGAS (A«>7as), an iatrolipta (see Diet, of Ant. s. v.), who lived in the first or second century after Christ, mentioned by Galen (de Compos. Me-dicam. sec. Locos, vii. 5, vol. xii. p. ] 04) as having used a medicine of Antonius Musa. [W. A. G.]
DIOGENEIA (Aioyeveia), the name of two mythical beings. (Paus. i. 38. § 3 ; Apollod. iii. 15. § 1.) [L. S.]
DIOGENES (Aio7&/7js), historical. 1. An acarnanian. WhenPopillius in b. c. 170 went as ambassador to the Aetolians, and several statesmen were of opinion that Roman garrisons should be stationed in Acarnania, Diogenes opposed their advice, and succeeded in inducing Popillius not to send any soldiers into Acarnania. (Polyb. xxviii. 5.)
3. A carthaginian, who succeeded Hasdrubal in the command of a place called Nepheris, in Africa, where he was attacked by Scipio Africanus the Younger, who however left Laelius to continue the attack, while he himself marched against Carthage. However, Scipio soon returned, and after a siege of twenty-two days, the place was taken : 70,000 persons are said to have been killed on that spot, and this victory of Scipio was the first great step towards the taking of Carthage, which had been supplied with provisions from Nepheris. The capture of the place, moreover, broke the courage of the Africans, who still espoused the cause of Carthage. (Appian, Pun. 126.)
4. A person sent by orofernes, together with Timotheus, as ambassador to Rome in b.c. 161, to carry to Rome a golden crown, and to renew the friendship and alliance with the Romans. The principal object of the ambassadors, however, was to support the accusation which was brought against Ariarathes; and Diogenes and his coadjutor, Mil-tiades, succeeded in their plan, and lies and calumnies gained the victory, as there was no one to undertake the defence of Ariarathes. (Polyb. xxxii. 20.)
5. Praefect of susiana in the reign of Antiochus the Great. During the rebellion of Molo he defended the arx of Susa while the city itself was taken by the rebel. Molo ceased pushing his conquest further, and leaving a besieging corps behind him, he returned to Seleuceia. When the insurrection was at length put down by Antiochus, Diogenes obtained the command of the military forces