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DIODORUS.

defence which he made. Strabo adds, that the younger Diodorus, who was his own friend, com­ posed historical writings, lyrics, and other poems, which were written in an antique style (rriv ap-xodav ypafyriv eutyaivovra ikclvus). The epi­ grams of the Diodori, of which there are several, were included by Philip of Thessalonica in his collection, and they now form a part of the Greek Anthology. (Brimck, Anal. ii. 80, 185 ; Jacobs, ii. 67, 170.) There is considerable difficulty in assigning each of the epigrams to its proper author, and probably some of them belong to a third Dio­ dorus, a grammarian of Tarsus, who is also men­ tioned by Strabo (xiv. p. 675), and as it seems, by other ancient writers. (Jacobs, xiii. 883, 884; Fabric. Bibl, Graec. iv. pp. 380, 472, vi. pp. 363, 364.) [P.S.] . DIODO'RUS, comes and magister scriniorum, one of the commis'sioners appointed by Theodosius the younger, in A. d. 435, to compile the Theodo- sian code. Theodosius originally intended that, as an historical monument for the use of the learned, there should be compiled a general code of consti­ tutions, supplementary to the Gregorian and Her- mogenian codes. These three codes taken together were intended to comprise all the general consti­ tutions of the emperors, not such only as were in actual force, but such also as were superseded or had become obsolete. In order, however, that in case of conflict, the reader might be able to dis­ tinguish the more modern enactment, which was to prevail over the more ancient one, the arrange­ ment under each subject was to be chronological, and dates were to be carefully added. From this general code, with the help of the works and opi­ nions of jurists, was to be formed a select code, ex­ cluding every thing not in force and containing the whole body of practical law. In A. d. 429, nine com­ missioners were appointed, charged with the task of compiling, first, the general historical, and then, the select practical code. The nine named were Antiochus, ex-quaestor and praefect; another Anti- ochus, quaestor palatii; Theodoras, Eudicius, Eu- sebius, Joannes, Comazon, Eubulus, and Apelles. This plan was not carried into execution. Theo­ dosius changed his purpose, and contented himself with projecting a single code, which should contain imperial constitutions only, without admixture of the jus civile of the jurists, or, as an English lawyer would express it, which should exhibit a consolida­ tion of the statutory, but not of the common or un­ written law. For the changed plan sixteen com­ missioners were named in a. d. 435, who were directed to dispose chronologically under the same title those constitutions, or parts of constitutions, which were connected in subject ; and were em­ powered to remove what was superfluous, to add what was necessary, to change what was doubtful by substituting what was clear, and to correct what was inconsistent. The sixteen named were Antiochus, praefectorius and consularis ; Eubulus, Maximinus, Sperantius, Martyrius, Alipius, Sebastianus, Apol- lodorus, Theodoras, Oron, Maximus, Epigenius, Diodorus, Procopius, Erotius, Neuterius. It will be observed that only three, (namely, Antiochus, Theodoras, and Eubulus) who belonged to the first commission were nominated upon the second. In the constitution concerning the authority of the Theodosian code, eight only of the sixteen named upon the second commission are signalized as having been actively employed in the composition of the

DIODOTUS.

code. These eight are Antiochus, jVIaximinus4 Martyrius, Sperantius, Appollodorus, Theodoras, Epigenius, and Procopius. (Cod. Theod. 1, tit. 1, s. 5, ib. s. 6, § 2 ; Const, de TJieod. Cod. Auct. § 7.) [J. T. G.]

DIODORUS (AioSapos), a Greek physician, who must have lived some time in or before the first century after Christ, as he is quoted by Pliny. (If. N. xxix. 39.) He may perhaps be the same person who is said by Galen (de Metli. Med. ii. 7, vol. x. p. 142) to have belonged to the medical sect of the Empirici, and whose medical formulae he several times quotes. (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, v. 3, vol. xii. p. 834; x. 3, vol. xiii. p. 361.) [W.A.G.]

DIODORUS, artists. 1. A silversmith, on whose silver image of a sleeping satyr there is an epigram by Plato in the Greek Anthology. (Anth. Plan. iv. 12, 248.) The idea contained in the epigram is applied by Pliny to a similar work of stratonicus.

2. A worthless painter, who is ridiculed in an epigram. (Anth. Pal. xi. 213.) [P. S.]

DIODOTUS (AioSoros), the son of Eucrates (possibly, but not probably, the flax-seller of that name who is said to have preceded Cleon in influence with the Athenians), is only known as the orator who in the two discussions on the punishment to be inflicted on Mytilene (b. c. 427), took the most pro­ minent part against Cleon's sanguinary motion. (Thuc. iii. 41.) The substance of his speech on the second day we may suppose ourselves to have in the language of Thucydides (iii. 42—48). The expressions of his opponent lead us to take him for one of the rising class of professional orators, the earliest produce of the labours of the Sophists. If so, he is a singularly favourable specimen. Of his eloquence we cannot judge ; but if, in other points, Thucydides represents him fairly, he certainly on this occasion displayed the ingenuity of the Sophists, the tact of the practised debater, and soundness of view of the statesman, in the service of a cause that deserved and needed them all. He cautiously shifts the argument from the justice to the policy of the measure. Feelings of humanity were already excited; the people only wished a justi­ fication for indulging them. This he finds them in the certainty that revolt at any risk would be ventured ; severities could not check, and would surely make it more obstinately persevered in; and in the exceeding inexpediency of confounding, by indiscriminate slaughter, their friends, the de­ mocratic party, with those who would in any case be their enemies,—a suggestion probably, at that time, far from obvious. To his skill we must as­ cribe the revocation of the preceding day's vote in Cleon's favour, and the preservation of My­ tilene from massacre, and Athens from a great crime. [A. H. C.]

DIODOTUS (Ai6ooTos) I., King of Bactria, and founder of the Bactrian monarchy, which con­tinued to subsist under a Greek dynasty for above one hundred and fifty years. This prince as well as his successor is called by Justin, Theodotus, but the form Diodotus, which occurs in Strabo (xi. p. 515) seems to have been that used by Trogus Pom-peius (Prol. Trogi Pompeii, lib. xli.), is con­firmed by the evidence of an unique gold coin now in the museum at Paris. (See Wilson, Ariana^ p. 219.)

Both the period and circumstances of the esta-

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