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by the side of one another without any internal connexion. In composing his Bibliotheca, Diodorus made use, independent of his own observations, of all sources which were accessible to him; and had he exercised any criticism or judgment, or rather had he possessed any critical powers, his work might have been of incalculable value to the student of history. But Diodorus did nothing but collect that which he found in his different authorities : he thus jumbled together history, mythus, and fiction ; he frequently misunderstood or mutilated his authorities, and not seldom contradicts in one passage what he has stated in another. The absence of criticism is manifest throughout the work, which is in fact devoid of all the higher requisites of a history. But notwithstanding all these drawbacks, the extant portion of this great compilation is to us of the highest importance, on account of the great mass of materials which are there collected from a number of writers whose works have perished. Diodoms frequently mentions his authorities, and in most cases he has undoubtedly preserved the substance of his predecessors. (See Heyne, de Fontibus et Auctorib. Hist. Diodori, in the Commentat. Societ. Gotting. vols. v. and vii., and reprinted in the Bipont edition of Diodorus, vol. i. p. xix. &c., which also contains a minute account of the plan of the history by J. N. Eyring, p. cv., &c.) The 8tvie of Diodorus is on the whole clear and lucid,
but not always equal, which may be owing to the different character of the works he used or abridged. His diction holds the middle between the archaic or refined Attic, and the vulgar Greek which was spoken in his time. (Phot. Bibl. Cod. 70.)
The work of Diodorus was first published in Latin translations of separate parts, until Vine. Opsopaeus published the Greek text of books 16-20, Basel, 1539, 4to., which was followed by H. Stephens's edition of books 1-5 and 11-20, with the excerpta of Photius, Paris, 1559, fol. The next important edition is that of. N. Rhodomannus (Hanover, 1604, fol.), which contains a Latin translation. The great edition of P. Wesseling, with an extensive and very valuable commentary, as well as the Eclogae of Constantine Porphyroge-nitus, as far as they were then known, appeared at Amsterdam, 1746, 2 vols. fol. This edition was reprinted, with some additions, at Bipont (1793, &c.) in 11 vols. 8vo. The best modern edition is that of L. Dindorf, Leipzig, 1828, 6 vols. 8vo. The new fragments discovered and published by A. Mai were edited, with many improvements, in a separate volume by L. Dindorf, Leipzig, 1828, 8vo. Wesseling's edition and the Bipont reprint of it contain 65 Latin letters attributed to Diodorus. They had first been published in Italian in Pietro Carrera's Storia di Catana, 1639, fol., and were then printed in a Latin version by Abraham Preiger in Burmann's Thesaur. Antig. Sicil. vol. x. and in the old edition of Fabr. Bibl. Gr. vol. xiv. p. 229, &c. The Greek original of these letters has never been seen by any one, and there can be little doubt but that these letters are a forgery made after the revival of letters. (Fabr. Bibl. Gr. iv. p. 373, &c.)
13. OfSiNOPE. See below.
14. Of syracuse, is mentioned by Pliny (H. N. Elench. lib. iii. and v.) among the authorities he consulted on geographical subjects.
15. Of tarsus (Hesych. s. v. Aiay6pas), a grammarian who is mentioned by Athenaeus (xi. p. 479) as the author ot y\£cr(rat 'IraAt/caf, and of a work Trpos AvKo<ppova (xi. p. 478). He appears to be the same as the Diodorus referred to in two other passages of Athenaeus (xi. p. 501, xiv. p. 642). It may also be that he is the same as the grammarian whom Eustathius describes as a disciple or follower of Aristophanes of Byzantium. (Villoison, Proleg. ad Horn. II. p. 29.)
16. Surnamed tryphon, lived about a. D. 278. and is described by Epiphanius (de Mens. etc Pond. 20) as a good man and of wonderful piety* He was presbyter in the village of Diodoris and a friend of bishop Archelaus. When Manes took refuge in his house, he was at first kindly received; but when Diodorus was informed, by a letter of Archelaus, of the heresies of Manes, and when he began to see through the cunning of the heretic, he had a disputation with him, in which he is said triumphantly to have refuted his errors. (Phot. Bibl. Cod. 85.) A letter of Archelaus to Diodorus is still extant, and printed in Valesius's edition of Socrates, p. 200.
17. Of tyre, a Peripatetic philosopher, a disciple and follower of Critolaus, whom he succeeded as the head of the Peripatetic school at Athens. He was still alive and active there in b. c. 110, when L. Crassus, during his quaestorship of Macedonia, visited Athens. Cicero denies to him the character of a genuine Peripatetic, because it was one of his ethical maxims, that the greatest good consisted in a combination of virtue with the absence of pain, whereby a reconciliation between the Stoics and Epicureans was attempted. (Cic. de Orat. i. 11, Tusc. v. 30, de Fin. ii. 6, 11, iv. 18, v. 5, 8, 25, Acad. ii. 42; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 301, ii. p. 415.)
There are some more persons of the name of Diodorus, concerning whom nothing of interest is known. See the list of them in Fabric. Bibl. Gr. iv. p. 378, &c. [L. S,]
DIODORUS (AiJSwpos), of sinope, an Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy, is mentioned in an inscription (Bockh, i. p. 354), which fixes his date at the archonship of Diotimus (b. c. 354-^-353), when he exhibited two plays, entitled Newpo's and Maii/o/xez'os, Aristomachus being his actor. Suidas (s. v.) quotes Athenaeus as mentioning his Av\riTpis in the tenth book of the DeipnosopMstae, and his 'ETa'/cAr/pos and Havr]jvpi(rrai in. the twelfth book. The actual quotations made in our copies of Athenaeus are from the AuA^rpfc (x. p. 431, c.) and a long passage from the 'ErriKhripos (vi. pp. 235, e., 239, b., not xii.), but of the nav^yvpurT-ai there is no mention in Athenaeus. A play under that title is ascribed to Baton or to plato. There is another fragment from Diodorus in Stobaeus. (Serm. Ixxii. 1.) In another passage of Stobaeus (Serm. cxxv. 8) the common reading, Atovixnos., should be retained. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. i. pp. 418, 419, iii. pp. 543—546.) [P. S.]
DIODORUS ZONAS (AtoSwpos Zwms) and DIODO'RUS the Younger, both of sardjs, and of the same family, were rhetoricians and epigrammatists. The elder was distinguished in the Mith-ridatic war. Strabo (xiii. pp. 627. 628) says, that he engaged in many contests on behalf of Asia,, and when Mithridates invaded that province, Zo--nas was accused of inciting the cities to revolt from him, but was acquitted in consequence of the