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On this page: Dicaeocles – Dicaeogenes – Dicaeus – Dice – Dicetas – Dicon – Dictaeus – Dicte – Dictynna – Dictys – Dictys Cretensis

1002

DICE.

the TpiTToAm/cos of Dicaearchus. Cicero intended to make use of this work, which seems to have been written in the form of a dialogue, for his treatise de Gloria. (Ad Ait. xiii. 30.) Among his philosophical works may be mentioned—7- Aecrgia-koi, in three books, which derived its name from the fact that the scene of the philosophical dialogue was laid at Mytilene in Lesbos. In it Dicaearchus endeavoured to prove that the soul was mortal. (Cic. Tusc. i. 31.) Cicero (ad Alt, xiii. 12) when speaking of a work Trepi ipuxT/s, probably means the A€ff§iaKoL Another philosophical work,— 8. KopivOiaKot) which likewise consisted of three books, was a sort of supplement to the former. (Cic. Tusc. i. 10.) It is probably the same work as the one which Cicero, in another passage (de Off. ii. 5), calls " de Interitu Hominum." Some other works, such as noAtreta ^irapTiaT&v (Suid.), 'OAVjUTTi/cos- <xy<jov or h6yos (Athen. xiv. p. 620), TlavaQrivaiKos (Schol. ad Aristoph. Vesp. 564), and several others, seem to have been merely chapters of the Bios Trjs 'EXXafios. A work irepl rrjs kv 'lAiGj Svffias (Athen. xiii. p. 603) seems to have referred to the sacrifice which Alexander the Great performed at Ilium. The work Qaifipov irepta-fftov has no foundation except a false reading in Ci­cero (ad Att. xiii. 39), which has been corrected by Petersen in his Phaedri Epicurei Fragm. p. 11. There are lastly some other works which are of a grammatical nature, and are usually believed to have been the productions of our philosopher, viz. Hepl 'AA/ccuou (Athen. xi. pp. 460, 479, xv. pp. 666, 668), and viroOeffeis rwv EvptTrio'ov Kai ^ofyo-/cAeow fjivQwv (Sext. Empir. adv. Geometr. p. 310), but may have been the works of Dicaearchus, a grammarian of Lacedaemon, who, according to Suidas, wag a disciple of Aristarchus, and seems to be alluded to in Apollonius. {De Pronom. p. 320.) A valuable dissertation on the writings of Dicaearchus is contained in Osann (I. c. p. 1, &c.), and the fragments have been collected and accom­panied by a very interesting discussion by Maxi-inil. Fuhr, Dicaearchi Messenii quae supersunt composite^ edita et illustrata, Darmstadt, 1841, 4to.

2. Of Tarentmn, is mentioned by lamblichus (de Vit. Pytliag. 36) among the celebrated Pytha­gorean philosophers. Some writers have been inclined to attribute to him the (Bioi which are mentioned among the works of the Peripatetic Dicaearchus. (See Fuhr, 1. <?., p. 43, &c.) [L. S.]

DICAEOCLES (AiKatoK\-ns), a writer of Cnidos, whose essays (StarpiSaty are referred to by Athenaeus. (xi. p. 508, f.) [E. E.]

DICAEOGENES(Ai«ai07eV7js), a Grecian tragic and dithyrambic poet, of whom nothing is known except a few titles of his dramas. One of these, the Cyprwb) is supposed by some to have been not a tragedy, but a cyclic epic poem. (Suid. s. v.; Aristot. Poet. 16, with Hitter's note^ p. 199; Fa­ bric. Bill Graec. ii. p. 295.) [P. S.]

DICAEUS (Auccuos), a son of Poseidon, from whom Dicaea, a town in Thrace, is said to have de­rived its name. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Af/ccua.) [L. S.]

DICE (At'/o?), the personification of justice, was, according to Hesiod (TJieog. 901), a daughter of Zeus and Themis, and the sister of Eunomia and Eirene. She was considered as one of the Horae ; she watched the deeds of man, and approached the throne of Zeus with lamentations whenever a judge violated justice. (Hesiod. Op. 239, &c.) She was the enemy of all falsehood, and the protectress of a

DICTYS CRETENSIS,

wise administration of justice (Orph. Hymn. 42, 61); and Hesychia, that is, tranquillity of mind, was her daughter. (Pind. Pytli. viii. 1; comp. Apollod. i. 3. § 1; Hygin. Fab. 183; Diod. v. 72.) She is frequently called the attendant or councillor (rrdpedpos or %vv<=fipos} of Zeus. (Soph. Oed. Col. 1377 ; Pint. Alex. 52 ; Arrian, Anab. iv. 9 ; Orph. Hymn. 61. 2.) In the tragedians, Dice appears as a divinity who severely punishes all wrong, watches over the maintenance of justice, and pierces the hearts of the unjust with the sword made for her by Aesa. (Aeschyl. Glioepli. 639, &c.) In this capacity she is closely connected with the Erinnyes (Aeschyl. Eum. 510), though her business is not only to punish injustice, but also to reward virtue. (Aeschyl. Again. 773.) The idea of Dice as justice personified is most per­ fectly developed in the dramas of Sophocles and Euripides. She was represented on the chest of Cypselus as a handsome goddess, dragging Adicia (Injustice) with one hand, while in the other she held a staff with which she beat her. (Pans. v. 18; comp. Eurip. Hippolyt. 1172.) TL. S.J

DICETAS (Ai/re'ras), a Theban, was sent' by his countrymen to Q. Marcius Philippus and the other Roman commissioners at Chalcis (b. c. 171) to excuse the conduct of their state in having allied itself with Perseus. He went reluctantly, as being still an adherent to the Macedonian cause, for which he was accused at Chalcis, together with Neon and Ismenias, by the Theban exiles of the Roman party. Ismenias and he were thrown into prison, and there put an end to their own lives. (Polyb. xxvii. 1, 2: Liv. xiii. 38, 43, 44.) [E. E.]

DICON (Af/cwz'j, the son of Callimbrotus, was victor in the foot-race five times in the Pythian games, thrice in the Isthmian, four times in the Nemean, and at Olympia once in the boys' foot­ race, and twice in the men's: he was therefore a 7re/)io8oj>i/o}s. His statues at Olympia were equal in number to his victories. He was a native of Caulonia, an Achaean colony in Italy; but after all his victories, except the first, he caused himself, for a sum of money, to be proclaimed as a Syra- cusan. One of his Olympic victories was in the 99th Olympiad, b. c. 384. (Paus. vi. 3. § 5; Anffi. Grace, iv. p. 142, No. 120, ed. Jacobs, Anili. Pal. xiii. 15 ; Krause, Olymp. p. 271, Gymn. u. Ac/on. ii. p. 755.) ^ [P.S.]

DICTAEUS (aiktcuos), a surname of Zeus, derived from mount Dicte in -the eastern part of Crete. Zeus Dictaeus had a temple at Prasus, on the banks of the river Pothereus. (Strab. x. p. 478.) [L. S.]

DICTE (aiktt?), a nymph from whom mount Dicte in Crete was said to have received its name. She was beloved and pursued by Minos, but she threw herself into the sea, where she was caught up and saved in the nets (SOcruoj/) of fishermen. Minos then desisted from pursuing her, and ordered the district to be called the Dictaean. (Serv. ad Aen. iii. 171 ; comp. britomartis.) [L. S.]

DICTYNNA. [bbitomartjs.]

DICTYS (ai/ctus), the name of three mythical personages. (Ov. Met. iii. 614, xii. 335 ; Apol­ lod. i. 9. § 6.) [L. S.]

DICTYS CRETENSIS. The grammarians and other writers who belong to the decline of the Roman empire, misled probably by the figments of the Alexandrian sophists, believed that various per­sons who flourished at the time of the Trojan war.

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