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aera. He probably lived in the time of Hadrian, though the exact date of his birth and death is unknown. "We owe our knowledge of his character to Lucian, who has painted it in the most glowing colours, representing him as almost perfectly wise and good. He adds that he has written an ac count of Demonax, fc4 in order that the young who wish to apply to the study of philosophy may not be obliged to confine themselves to examples from antiquity, but may derive from his life also a model for their imitation." Of his friends the best known to us was Epictetus, who appears to have exercised considerable influence in the direction of his mind. By birth a Cyprian, he removed to Athens, and there joined the Cynical school, chiefly from re spect to the memory of Diogenes, whom he con sidered the most faithful representative of the life and virtues of Socrates. He appears, however, to have been free from the austerity and moroseness of the sect, though he valued their indifference to external things; but we do not find that he con tributed anything more to the cause of science than the original Cynics. His popularity at Athens was so great, that people vied with each other for the honour of offering him bread, and even boys shewed their respect by large donations of apples. He contracted some odium by the freedom with which he rebuked vice, and he was accused of neglecting sacrifice and the Eleusinian mysteries. To these charges he returned for answer, that " he did not sacrifice to Athena, because she could not want his offerings," and that " if the mysteries were bad, no one ought to be initiated; if good, they should be divulged to everybody,"—the first of which re plies is symptomatic of that vague kind of Deism which used so generally to conceal itself under an affectation of reverence for the popular gods. He never married, though Epictetus begged him to do so, but was met by the request that his wife might be one of Epictetus's daughters, whose own bachelor life was not very consistent with his urging the duty of giving birth to and educating children. This and other anecdotes of Demonax recorded by Lucian, shew him to have been an amiable, good-humoured man, leading probably a happy life, beloved and respected by those about him, and no doubt contrasting favourably with others who in those times called themselves votaries of those ancient systems which, as practical guides of life, were no longer necessary in a world to which a perfect revelation had now been given. [crescens.] Demonax died when nearly a hun dred years old, and was buried with great magni ficence, though he had declared it a matter of perfect indifference to him if his body were thrown to the dogs. (Lucian, Demonax; Brucker, Hist. Grit. Phil. per. ii. pars 1. 2. 6.) [G. E. L. C.]
DEMONICE (A ^01/1/07), a daughter of Agenor and Epicaste, who became by Ares the mother of Euenus, Molus, Pylus, and Thestius. (Apollod. i. 7. § 7.) Hesiod (ap. Scliol. ad Horn. II. xiv. 200) calls her Demodoce, [L. S.]
DEMONICUS (A^oWos), an Athenian comic poet of the new comedy, of whom one fragment is preserved by Athenaeus (ix. p. 410, d.), who gives 'AxeA-w^os as the title of the play ; but perhaps it should rather be 'A'xeAtpos. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. i. p. 492, iv. p. 570.) [P. S.] DEMO'PHANES (at&uo^c^s), of Megalopolis, a Platonic philosopher, and a disciple of Arcesilas. (Plut. PUlopoem. 1.) He and Ecdemus were the
chief persons who delivered Megalopolis from the tyranny of Aristodemus, and also assisted Aratus in abolishing tyranny at Sicyon. For a time they were entrusted with the administration of the state of Gyrene, and Philopoemen in his youth had enjoyed their friendship. (Polyb. x. 25.) [L. S.] DEMOPHILUS. [damophilus.] DEMO'PHILUS ( A^o>Aos). l.'The son of Ephorus, was an historian in the time of Alexander the Great. He continued his father's history by adding to it the history of the Sacred War from the taking of Delphi and the plunder of its temple by Philomelus the Phocian, b. c. 357. (Diod. xvi. 14 ; Suid. s. v. *E(f)nnros, where*E</>opos should be read for"E^nnros ; Athen. vi. p. 232, d.; Sehol. Horn. 77. xiii. 301; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 98, ed. Westermann.)
2. An Athenian comic poet of the new comedy. The only mention of him is in the Prologue to the Asinaria of Plautus, who says, that his play is taken from the 'Ovayos of Demophilits, vv. 10-13, " Huic nomen Graece est Onagos Fabulae.
Dcmophilus scripsit, Marcus vortit barbare.
Asinariam volt esse, si per vos licet.
Inest lepos ludusque in hac Comoedia." Meineke observes that, judging from the "lepos ludusque" of the Asinaria, we have no need to regret the loss of the 'Qvayos. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. i. p. 491.)
3. A Pythagorean philosopher, of whose personal history nothing is known. He wrote a work entitled fiiov S-epcnrem, treating of practical ethics, parts of which are still extant, in the form of a selection, entitled yvwutica d/xoje^uara, from which we may infer that the whole work must have been of the highest order of excellence. The extant portion of it was first printed by Lucas Holstenius in his collection of the ancient writers on practical morals, Rome, 1638, 8vo., Lugd. Bat. 1639, 12mo.; then by Gale, in his Opusc. Myilid. Cant. 1670, 8vo., Amst. 1688, 8vo., also with the Oxford edition of Maximus Tyrius, 1677, 12mo., and with Wetstein's Epictetus, Amst. 1750,12mo.; in a separate form by J. Swedberg, Stockholm, 1682, 8vo., and more correctly by I. A. Schier, Lips. 1754, 8vo., and lastly by J. C. Orelli, in his Opusc. Graec. Vet. Scntent. Lips. 1819, 8vo. [P. S.]
2. An architect of little note, wrote Praeeepta Symmetriarum. (Vitruv. vii. Pracf. § 14.) See also damophilus. [P. S.]
DEMOPHON or DEMOPHOON (Ai^w* or A^o^oW). 1. The youngest son of Celeus and Metaneira, who was entrusted to the care of De-meter. He grew up under her without any human food, being fed by the goddess with her own milk, and ambrosia. During the night she used to place him in fire to secure to him eternal youth ; but once she was observed by Metaneira, who disturbed, the goddess by her cries, and the child Demophon was consumed by the flames. (Apollod. i. 5. § 1; Ov. Fast. iv. 512, &c.; Hygin. Fab. 147 ; Horn. Hymn, in Cei\ 234.)
2. A son of Theseus and Phaedra, and brother of Acamas. (Diod. iv. 62; Hygin. Fab. 48.) According to Pindar (ap. Pint. Thes. 28), he was the son of Theseus by Antiope. He accompanied the Greeks against Troy (Homer, however, does