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DEMETRIUS.

king of Bactria. Mionnet (Suppl. vol. viii. p. 473) has suggested that there were two Demetrii, one the son of Euthydemus, the other a king of northern India ; but it does not seem necessary to have recourse to this hypothesis. The most probable view of the matter is, that Eucratides revolted from Demetrius, while the latter was engaged in his wars in India, and established his power in Bactria proper, or the provinces north of the Hindoo Koosh, while Demetrius retained the countries south of that barrier. Both princes may thus have ruled contemporaneously for a considerable space of time. (Comp. Wilson's Ariana, pp. 228—231 ; Lassen, Gesoh. der Bactr. Konige, p. 230 ; Raoul Rochette, Journ. des Savans, for 1835, p. 521.) It is pro­bably to this Demetrius that we are to ascribe the foundation of the city of Demetrias in Arachosia, mentioned by Isidore of Charax (p. 8, ed. Hudson ; see Lassen, p. 232). The chronology of his reign, like that of all the Bactrian kings, is extremely un­certain : his accession is placed by M. R. Rochette in b. c, 190 (Journ. des Savans, Oct. 1835, p. 594), by Lassen in 185 (Gesch. der Baclr. Koniye, p. 282), and it seems probable that he reigned about 20 or 25 years. (Wilson's Ariana, p. 231.) [E. H. B.] DEME'TRIUS (A-nwrpios} I., king of mace­donia, surnamed polio rcetes (rioXiop/ci?T77s), or the Besieger, was the son of Antigonus, king of Asia, and Stratonice, the daughter of Corrhaeus. He was distinguished when a young man for his affectionate attachment to his parents, and he and Antigonus continued, throughout the life of the latter, to present a rare example of unanimity. While yet very young, he was married to Phila, the daughter of Antipater and widow of Craterus, a woman of the noblest character, but considerably older than himself, in consequence of which it was not without difficulty that he was persuaded by Antigonus to consent to the match. (Plut. Demetr. 14.) He accompanied his father in his campaigns against Eumenes, and commanded the select body of cavalry called eraTpot at the battle in Gabiene (b. c. 317), at which time he was about twenty years old. (Diod. xix. 29.) The following year he commanded the whole right wing of the army of Antigonus in the second battle of Gabiene (Id. xix. 40); and it must be mentioned to his credit, that after the capture of Eumenes, he interceded earnestly with his father to spare his life. (Pint. Eum. 18.) Two years afterwards, he was left by Antigonus in the chief command of Syria, while the latter proceeded to carry on the war in Asia Minor. In the spring of b. c. 312. Ptolemy in­vaded Syria with a large army; and Demetrius, contrary to the advice of the more experienced generals whom his father had left with him as a council of war, hastened to give him battle at Gaza, but was totally defeated and lost the greater part of his army. This reverse compelled him to abandon Tyre and the whole of Syria, which fell into the hands of Ptolemy, and Demetrius retired into Cilicia, but soon after in part retrieved his disaster, by surprising Cilles (who had been sent against him by Ptolemy) on his march near Myus, and taking him and his whole army prisoners. (Diod. xix. 80—85, 93; Plut. Demetr. \5, 6.) He was now joined by Antigonus, and Ptolemy immediately gave way before them. Demetrius was next employed by his father in an expedition against the Nabathaean Arabs, and in a more im­portant one to recover Babylon, which had been

DEMETRIUS.

lately occupied by Seleucus. This he accomplished with little difficulty, but did not complete his work, and without waiting to reduce one of the forts or citadels of Babylon itself, he left a force to continue the siege, and returned to join Antigo­nus, who almost immediately afterwards concluded peace with the confederates, b. c. 311. (Diod. xix. 96-98, 100 ; Plut. Demetr. 7.) This did not last long, and Ptolemy quickly renewed the war, which was however almost confined to maritime opera­tions on the coasts of Cilicia and Cyprus, in which Demetrius, who commanded the fleet of Antigonus, obtained many successes. In 307 he was de­spatched by his father with a powerful fleet and army to endeavour to wrest Greece from the hands of Cassander and Ptolemy, who held all the principal towns in it, notwithstanding that the freedom of the Greek cities had been expressly guaranteed by the treaty of 311. He first directed his course to Athens, where he was received with enthusiasm by the people as their liberator. De­metrius the Phalerean, who had in fact governed the city for Cassander during the last ten years, was expelled, and the fort at Munychia taken. Megara was also reduced, and its liberty proclaimed; after which Demetrius took up his abode for the winter at Athens, where he was re­ceived with the most extravagant flatteries : divine honours being paid him under the title of "the Preserver" (6 2a>r?7p), and his name being ranked with those of Dionysus and Demeter among the

tutelary deities of Athens. (Plut. Demetr. 8—13 ; Diod. xx. 45, 46.) It was at this time also that he married Eurydice, the widow of Ophellus of Cy-rene, but an Athenian by birth, and a descendant of the great Miltiades. (Plut. Demetr. 14.)

From Athens Demetrius was recalled by his father to take the command of the war in Cyprus against Ptolemy. He invaded that island with a powerful fleet and army, defeated Ptolemy's bro­ther, Menelaus, who held possession of the island, and shut him up in Salamis, which he besieged closely both by sea and land. Ptolemy himself advanced with a numerous fleet to the relief of his brother; but Demetrius was prepared for his ap­proach, and a great sea-fight ensued, in which, after an obstinate contest, Demetrius was entirely victorious : Ptolemy lost 120 ships of war, besides transports; and his naval power, which had hi­therto been regarded as invincible, was utterly annihilated. (b. c. 306.) Menelaus immediately afterwards surrendered his army and the whole of Cyprus into the hands of Demetrius. It was after this victory that Antigonus for the first time as­sumed the title of king, which he bestowed also at the same time upon his son,—an example quickly followed by their rival monarchs. (Diod. xx. 47— 53; Plut. Demetr. 15—18; Polyaen. iv. 7. § 7 ; Justin, xv. 2.)

Demetrius now for a time gave himself up to luxury and revelry in Cyprus. Among other pri­soners that had fallen into his hands in the late victory was the noted courtezan, Lamia, who, though no longer in the prime of her youth, soon obtained the greatest influence over the young king. (Plut. Demetr. 16,19, 27; A then. iv. p. 128, xiii. p. 577.) From these enjoyments he was, however, soon compelled to rouse himself, in order to take part with Antigonus in his expedition against Egypt: but the fleet which he commanded suffered severely from storms, and, after meeting

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