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On this page: Dem Arch Us – Demaratus – Demarete – Demeas – Demeter

DEMARATUS.

were trimming their hair ; thus, after the pass was won, when Xerxes owned his wisdom, and he is said to have given the farsighted counsel of oc­cupying Cythera. And thus finally he, says the story, was with Dicaeus in the plain of Thria, when they heard the mystic Eleusinian cry, and saw the cloud of sacred dust pass, as escorting the assistant deities, to the Grecian fleet. (Ibid. vii. 101—105, 209, 234, 235, viii. 65.)

Leaving the imagination of Herodotus and his informants responsible for much of this, we may safely believe that Demaratus, like Hippias before, accompanied the expedition in the hope of ven­geance and restoration, and, probably enough, with the mixed feelings ascribed to him. Pausa-nias (iii. 7- § 7) states, that his family continued long in Asia; and Xenophon (Hell. iii. 1. § 6) mentions Eurysthenes and Procles, his descen­dants, as lords of Pergamus, Teuthrania, and Halisarna, the district given to their ancestor by the king as the reward of his service in the expe­dition. The Cyrean army found Procles at Teu­thrania. (Xen. Anab. vii. 8. 17.) " To this family also," says Miiller (Dor. bk. i. 9. § 8), " belongs Procles, who married the daughter of Aristotle, when the latter was at Atarneus, and had by her two sons, Procles and Demaratus. (Sext. Empir. adv. Ma-them. p. 518, ed. Col") (See below.) Plutarch's anecdote (TJiem. c. 29), that he once excited the king's anger by asking leave to ride through Sardis

with the royal tiara, and was restored to favour by Themistocles, can only be said not to be in contra­ diction to the chronology. (Clinton, F. H. ii. p. 208.) [A. H. C.]

DEMARATUS (A^ua/mros), a merchant-noble of Corinth, and one of the Baechiadae. When the power of his clan had been overthrown by Cypse- lus. about b. c. 657, he fled from Corinth, and settled at Tarquinii in Etruria, where he had mercantile connexions. According to Strabo, he brought with him a large body of retainers and much treasure, and thereby gained such influence, that he was made ruler of Tarquinii. He is said also to have been accompanied by the painter Cleophantus of Corinth, and by Eucheir and Eu- grammus, masters of the plastic arts, and together with these refinements, to have even introduced the knowledge of alphabetical writing into Etruria. He married an Etrurian wife, by whom he had two sons, Aruns and Lucumo, afterwards L. Tar- quinius Priscus. (Liv. i. 34; Dionys. iii. 46; Polyb. vi. 2; Strab. v. p. 219, viii. p. 378; Cic. Tttsc. Quaest. v. 37; Tac. Ann. xi. 14 ; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 3, 12; Niebuhr, Rom. Hint. i. pp. 351, 366, &c.) For the Greek features pervading the story of the Tarquins, see Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Koine, p. 80. [E. E.]

DEMARATUS (Aojjuaparos), a Corinthian, connected by hospitality with the family of Philip of Macedon. It was through the mediation of Demaratus that Alexander returned home from Illyria, where he had taken up his abode in con­ sequence of the quarrel between himself and his father at the marriage of the-latter with Cleopatra, b. c. 337. (Plut. A lex. 9.) [E. E.]

DEMARATUS (A^dparos). 1. A son of Py­thias, who was Aristotle's daughter by his wife of the same name. He and his brother, Procles, were pupils of Theophrastus. (Diog. Laert. v. 53 ; Fa­bric. Bill. Graec. iii. pp. 485, 504.) He appears to have been named after Demaratus, king of

DEMETER. O'tf

Sparta, from whom his father, Procles, was de­scended.

2. A Corinthian author of uncertain date, who is quoted by Plutarch. (Ages. 15.) He is per­haps the same whose work called rpayySov/Aeva, on the subjects of Greek tragedy, is referred to by Clement of Alexandria, Stobaeus, and the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius. Plutarch also quotes works of Demaratus on rivers, on Phrygia, and on Arcadia. (Plut. Parall. Mm. 16, de Fluv. ix. §§ 3, 5 ; Clem. Alex. Protrept. c. 3; Stob. Ftoril. xxxix. 32,133; Schol. ad Apoll. Mod. i. 45,1289 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. ii. pp. 289, 294; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 425, ed. Wester-mann.)

3. A Spartan, who is said to have retorted upon the epigram on the subjugation of Greece usually ascribed to Hadrian (Antkol. ii. p. 285) by writing under it a line from a speech of Achilles to Patroclus. (II. xvi. 70.) When inquiry was made as to who had "capped" the imperial epigram, he replied by a parody on Archilochus (Fragm, ii.):

Etyii fji^v ev6(apir)Kos 'Ei/uaAtov TroAe/^KTTTjy, tc. r. A. The story seems to rest on the authority of a note in the Vatican MS. This does not, however, give the name of Demaratus, which occurs in the ver­ sion of the anecdote in the Anthology of Planudes. (See Jacobs, ad Antliol. 1. c.) [E. E.]

DEM ARCH US (Arf^apxos), son of Pidocus, a Syracusan. He was one of the generals sent out to replace Hermocrates and his colleagues in the command of the Syracusan auxiliaries in Greece, when those generals were banished. (Thuc. viii. 85; Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 30.) After his return he appears to have taken a leading part in public affairs, and became one of the most powerful op­ ponents of the rising power of Dionysius. He was in consequence put to death at the instigation of the latter, at the same time with Daphnaeus, shortly after Dionysius had been appointed general autocrator. (Diod. xiii. 96.) [E. H. B.]

DEMARETE (A^a/^T??), daughter of Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum, was wife of Gelo, tyrant of Syracuse. She is said by Diodorus to have exerted her influence with Gelo to grant the Carthaginians peace on moderate terms after their great defeat at Himera, b. c. 480. In return for this service they sent her a crown of gold of the value of a hundred talents, with the produce of which, or more probably in commemoration of the event, she caused to be struck for the first time the large silver coins, weighing 10 Attic drachms or 50 Sicilian litrae, to which the name of Dama- retion was given in her honour. (Diod. xi. 26; Schol. in Find. OL ii, 1; Hesych. s.'v. A^jaaperioi/; Pollux, ix. 80 ; Annali delPIst. di Corrisp. Archeol. vol. ii. p. 81.) After the death of Gelo she married his brother and successor Polvzelus. (Schol. in Find. Ol. ii. 29.) [E, H/B.J

DEMEAS. [dameas.j

DEMETER (A^/x^r^p), one of the great divini­ties of the Greeks. The name Demeter is sup­posed by some to be the same as yrj /ufjrTjp, that is, mother earth, while others consider Deo, which is synonymous with Demeter, as connected with Sals and skivv/hi, and as derived from the Cretan word stjcu, barley, so that Demeter would be the mother or giver of barley or of food generally. (Horn. II. v. 500.) These two etymologies, how­ever, do not suggest any difference in the character

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