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ditions is Arcadia, Crete, Troas, or Italy. (Serv. ad Vifg. Aen. iii. 167.) Dardanus is the mythi­cal ancestor of the Trojans, and through them of the Romans. It is necessary to distinguish be­tween the earlier Greek legends and the later ones which we meet with in the poetry of Italy. Ac­cording to the former, he was married to Chryse,the daughter of Palas, in Arcadia, who bore him two sons, Idaeus and Deimas. These sons ruled for a lime over the kingdom of Atlas in Arcadia, but then they separated on account of a great flood, and the calamities resulting from it. Deimas remained in Arcadia, while Idaeus emigrated with his father, Dardanus. They first arrived in Samothrace, which was henceforth called Dardania, and after having established a colony there, they went to Phrygia.. Here Dardanus received a tract of land from king Teucrus, on which he built the town of Dardanus. At his marriage with Cliryse, she had brought him as a dowry the palladia and sacra of the great gods, whose worship she had learned, and which worship Dardanus introduced into Samothrace, though without making the people acquainted with the names of the gods. Servius (ad Aen. viii. 285) states, that he also instituted the Salii in Samo­thrace. When he went to Phrygia he took the images of the gods with him; and when, after forming the plan of founding a town, he consulted the oracle, he was told, among other things, that the town should remain invincible as long as the sacred dowry of his wife should be preserved in the country under the protection of Athena. After the death of Dardanus those palladia (others men­tion only one palladium) were carried to Troy by his descendants. When Chryse died, Dardanus married Bateia, the daughter of Teucrus, or Arisbe of Crete, by whom he became the father of Erich-thonius and Idaea. (Horn. II. xx. 215, &c.; Apol-lod. iii. 12. § 1, &c., 15. § 3; Dionys. i. 61, &c. ; Lycophr. 1302; Eustath. ad II. p, 1204; Conon. Narr. 21; Strab. vii. p. 331; Pans. vii. 4. § 3, 19. § 3 ; Diod. iv. 49 ; Serv. ad Aen. i. 32.)

According to the Italian traditions, Dardanus was the son of Corythus, an Etruscan prince of Gory thus (Cortona), or of Zeus by the wife of Corythus. (Serv. ad Aen. ix. 10, vii. 207.) In a battle with the Aborigines, Dardanus lost his hel­met (Kopus); and although he was already beaten, he led his troops to a fresh attack, in order to re­cover his helmet. He gained the victory, and called the place where this happened Corythus. He afterwards emigrated with his brother Jasius from Etruria. Dardanus went to Phrvgia, where

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he founded the Dardanian kingdom, and Jasius went to Samothrace, after they had previously divided the Penates between themselves. (Serv. ad Aen. iii. 15, 167, 170, vii. 207, 210.) There are four other mythical personages of the name of Dardanus. (Horn. //. xx. 459 ; Eustath. ad 11. pp. 380, 1697; Pans. viii. 24. § 2.) [L. S.J

DARDANUS (AapWos). 1. A Stoic philo­sopher and contemporary of Antiochus of Ascalon (about b. c. 110), who was at the head of the Stoic school at Athens together with Mnesarchus. (Cic. Acad. ii. 22 ; Zumpt, Ueber den Bestand der Philos* Selmlen in Athen, p. 80,)

2. A Greek sophist, a native of Assyria, is mentioned by Philostratus ( Vit. Soph. ii. 4) as the teacher of Antiochus of Aegae, according to which he must have lived in the second century after

[L. S.]


DARDANUS (AdpSavos), the fourth in de­ scent from Aesculapius, the son of Sostratus I., and the father of Crisamis I., who lived probably in the eleventh century b. c. (Jo. Tzetzes, C/iil. vii. Hist. 155, in Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xii. p. 680, ed. vet.) [W. A. G.]

DAREIUS or DARl'US (Aapucs, Aapticuos,

Ctes., Heb. ttfVTF,. «'• & Daryavesh), the name of vt : _

several kings of Persia. Like such names in general, it is no doubt a significant title. Hero­dotus (vi. 98) says that it means ep£eirjs ; but the meaning of this Greek word is doubtful. Some take it to be a form fabricated by Herodotus him­self, for pt^ias or Trp^icr^p, from the root epy (do), meaning the person who achieves great things ; but it is more probably derived from ^Ipya) (restrain"), in the sense of the ruler. In modern Persian Dara orDarab means lord, which approaches very near to the form seen in the Persepolitan inscrip­tion, Dareush or Darytish (where the sh is no doubt an adjective termination), as well as to the Hebrew form. Precisely the same result is ob­tained from a passage of Strabo (xvi. p. 785), who mentions, among the changes which names suffer in passing from one language to another, that Aapetos is a corruption of Aape^K'rjs, or, as Salma-sius has corrected it, of Aapiavys, that is Darywu. This view also explains the form Aapeicuos used by Ctesias. The introduction of the y sound after the r in these forms is explained by Grotefend. Some writers have fancied that Herodotus, in say­ing that Aapeios means ep£ei?7s, and that Ee'pl7?* means dprf'ios, was influenced in the choice of his words by their resemblance to the names ; and they add, as if it were a matter of course, the simple fact, which contradicts their notion, that the order of correspondence must be inverted. (Bahr, Annot. ad loc.) The matter is fully dis­cussed in Grotefend's Beilage zu Pleeretfs Ideen {Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. Append, ii.)

1. dareius I., the eldest son of Hystaspes (Gustasp], was one of the seven Persian chiefs who destroyed the usurper smerdis, after whose death Dareius obtained the throne. Pie was a member of the royal family of the Achaemenidae (Herod, i. 209), in a branch collateral to that of Cyrus. The meaning of the genealogy given by Xerxes (Herod, vii. 11) seems to be this:



i .

Cambyses. Cyrus.

Ariaramiics. Arsames. Hystaspes.

Cambyses. Smcrdis. Atossa^p Dareius.


When Cyrus undertook his expedition against the Massagetae, Dareius, who was then about twenty years old, was left in Persis, of which country his father Hystaspes was satrap. The night after the passage of the Araxes, Cyrus dreamt that he saw Dareius with wings on his shoulders, the one of which overshadowed Asia and the other Europe.

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