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On this page: Cyrus – Cythera – Cytheris – Cytherius Philoxenus – Cytherius Ptolemaeus – Cytissorus – Cyzicus

CYRUS.

Caesar, who afterwards married the emperor Augustus. (Spon, quoted by Fabric. I. c.)

5. Cyrus, St., was a native of Alexandria, where he practised medicine gratuitously and with great reputation. He was a Christian, and took every opportunity of endeavouring to convert his patients from paganism. During the persecution of Dio­ cletian he fled to Arabia, where he was said to heal diseases not so much by his medicines as by miraculous powers. He was put to death with many tortures by the command of the prefect Syrianus, in company with several other martyrs, A. d. 300 ; and his remains Avere carried to Rome, and there buried. His memory is celebrated on the thirty-first of January both by the Romish and Greek churches. (Ada Sanctor.; Menolog. Graecor. • Bzovius, Nomencl. Sanctor. Professione Medicor.; C. B. Carpzovius, De'Medici's ab Eccles. pro Sanctis habitis.) [W. A. G.]

CYRUS, an architect, who lived at Rome at the time of Cicero, and died on the same day with Clodius, b.c. 52. (Cic. ad.Fam.Yii. 14, ad Ait. ii. 3, ad Qu. Fr. ii. 21, pro Milon. 17.) [L. U.]

CYRUS, Christians. 1. An Egyptian, be­longing to the fifth cen,tury, afterwards bishop of Smyrna, according to the testimony of Theo-phanes. His poetical talents procured him the favour of the empress Eudocia. Under Theo-dosius the Younger he filled the office of go­vernor of the praetorium, and exarch of the city of Constantinople. When Eudocia withdrew to Jerusalem, a. d. 445, he fell under the emperor's displeasure. This led to his retirement from civil offices and his joining the clerical order. It is the express testimony of Theophanes that, by order of Theodosius, he was made bishop of Smyrna. After he was elevated to the episcopal dignity, he is said to have delivered a discourse to the people on Christmas day, in which he betrayed gross igno­rance of divine things. He lived till the time of the emperor Leo. Suidas says, that on his retire­ment from civil authority he became evncr/coTros t&v Izptov sv Korvaetcp ttjs Qpvyias; but whether this means bishop of Cotyaeia in Phrygia is uncer­tain. It is not known whether he wrote any­thing. (Cave, Histor. Literar. vol. i.; Suidas, s. v.)

2. An Egyptian bishop belonging to the seventh century. He was first bishop of Phasis a. d. 620, and afterwards patriarch of Alexandria, A. d. 630-640. It was owing to the favour of Heraclius, the emperor, that he was appointed over the latter place. In 633 he attempted to make peace be­tween the Theodosians or Severians and the Ca­tholics, and for that purpose held a S3^nod at Alex­andria, in which he proposed a Libellus Satisfac-tionis in nine chapters. This treatise was to be subscribed by the Theodosians, and then they were to be admitted into the bosom of the church. But the seventh chapter favoured the Monotholite heresy, and led to much disputation. In 638, Heraclius published an Ecthesis or formula of faith

925

CYZICUS.

drawn up by Sergius, in which he clearly stated that there was but one will in Christ. This was subscribed by Cyrus, a circumstance that served to confirm its truth in the eyes of many. Cyrus died A. d. 640. Besides the Libellus Satisfaction is, he wrote three letters to Sergius, patriarch of Con­ stantinople, which are still extant. Both are print­ ed in the Concilia, vol. vi. (Cave, Histor. Literar. vol. i. ; Murdock's Mosheim, vol. i. ; Guerike's Handbucli, vol. i. ; Gieseler's Text-book, by Cun- ningham, vol. i.) [S. D.]

CYRUS, THEODORUS PRODROMUS. [theodorus.]

CYTHERA, CYTHEREIA, CYTHE'RIAS (KvdijpZy KvGspeia, KvOypids), different forms of a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the town of Cythera in Crete, or from the island of Cythera, where the goddess was said to have first landed, and where she had a celebrated temple. (Horn. Od. viii. 288; Herod, i. 105 ; Pans. iii. 23. '§ 1; Anacr. v. 9 ; Horat. Carm. i. 4. 5.) [L. S.]

CYTHERIS, a celebrated courtezan of the time of Cicero, Antony, and Gallus. She was originally the freedwoman and mistress of Volum- nius Eutrapelus, and subsequently she became connected in the same capacity with Antony, and with Gallus the poet, to whom, however, she did not remain faithful. Gallus mentioned her in his poems under the name of Lycoris, by which name she is spoken of also by the Scholiast Cruquius on Horace. (Sat. i. 2. 55, 10. 77 ; comp. Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. x. 1; Cic. Phil. ii. 24, ad Att. x. 10, 16, ad Fain. ix. 26 ; Plut. Ant. 9; Plin. //. N. viii. 16.) [L. S.]

CYTHERIUS PHILOXENUS. [philox-

ENUS.]

CYTHERIUS PTOLEMAEUS. [ptole-

MAEUS.]

CYTISSORUS (Kirrtffffwpos), a son of Phrixus and Chalciope or lophossa. (Apollod. i. 9. § 1; Schol. ad Apollon. Mod. ii. 1123, 1149.) [L. S.]

CYZICUS (KtJfifcos), a son of Aeneus and Aenete, the daughter of Eusorus. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 948 ; Val. Flacc. iii. 3.) According to others, he was himself a son of Eusorus, and others again make him a son of Apollo by Stilbe. (Hygin. Fab. 16 ; Conon, Narrat. 41 ; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. I. c.) He was king of the Doliones at Cyzicus on the Propontis. In compliance with an oracle he received the Argonauts kindly, when they landed in his dominion. When, after their departure, they were cast back upon the shore by a storm and landed again at night-time, they were mistaken by the Doliones for a hostile people, and a struggle ensued, in which Cyzicus was slain by Heracles or Jason. On the next morning the mistake was discovered, arid the Argonauts mourned for three days with the Doliones over the death of their king, and celebrated funeral games in. his honour. (Apollod. i. 9. § 18 ; Conon, Narrat. 43, who gives a different account.) [L, S.J

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