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CYRILLUS.

derius, at Antwerp, 1648, 8vo., under the name of Cyril; but it has been ascertained that they belong to Origan, with the exception of the last, which was written by Clement of Alexandria. A liturgy inscribed to Cyril, translated from Arabic into Latin by Victor Scialac, was published at Augs­ burg, 1604, 4to. Cyril's works were published in Latin by George of Trebizond at Basel in 1546, 4 volumes ; by Gentianus Hervetus at Paris, 1573, 1605, 2 vols. They were published in Greek and Latin by Aubert, six volumes, Paris, 1638, fol. This is the best edition. (Socrates, Histor. Eccles. vii. 17, 13, 15 ; Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. viii.; Pagi in Baronius's AnnaL an. 412; Basnage, AnnaL 412, n. 12; Du Pin, Biblio- theque des Auteurs Eccles. vol. iv. ; Tillemont, Mtmoires, vol. xiv. ; Cave, Histor. Literar. vol. i., Oxford, 1740; Lardner, Works, vol. iii., quarto edition, London, 1815; Walch, Historic der Ket- zereien^ vol. v., and Historic der Kircliensammlung, p. 275, &c. ; Schrb'ck, KircliengescMchte^ vol. xviii.; .Neander, Allgem. Kircliengeschichte, vol. ii. part 3; Murdock's Moslieim^ vol. i.; Gieseler, Text Book of Eccles. Hist., translated by Cunning- ham, vol. i.; Guerike, Handbucli der Kirchenges- cliichte^ f'unfte, Aujlaye., vol. i. Specimens of Cyril's method of interpretation are given in Davidson's Sacred Hermeneutics, p. 145, &c.) [S. D.]

CYRILLUS (KyptAAos), ST., bishop of jeru­salem, was probably born at Jerusalem, a. d. 315. He was ordained deacon by Macarius in the church of his native place, about 334 or 335 ; and, by Maximus, who succeeded Macarius, he was elected presbyter, 345. When Maxirnus died, he was chosen to fill the episcopal chair, 351, in the reign of Constantius. It was about the commencement of his episcopate, on the 7th of May, 351, about 9 o'clock, a. m., that a great luminous cross, ex­ceeding in brightness the splendour of the sun, appeared for several hours over mount Golgotha, ;md extended as far as the mount of Olives. His letter to Constantius, which is preserved, gives a full account of this phenomenon. Soon after, he became involved in disputes with Acacius, the Arian bishop of Caesareia, which embittered the greater part of his subsequent life. The contro­versy between them arose about the rights of their respective sees; but mutual recriminations concern­ing the faith soon followed. Acacius accused Cyril of affirming, that the Son was like the Father in regard to essence, or that he was consubstantial Avith Him. During two successive years Cyril was summoned by his opponent to appear before a proper tribunal, but did not obey the call. Exas­perated no doubt by this steadfast disregard of his authority, the Caesarean bishop hastily got toge­ther a council, which deposed Cyril in 358. The charge against him was, that he had exposed to sale the treasures of the church, and in a time of famine applied the proceeds to the use of the poor. Among these treasures was specified a sacred gar­ment woven with golden threads and presented by Constantine the Great, which afterwards came in­to the possession of an actress. The excommuni­cated prelate, however, appealed to a larger coun­cil ; and Constantius himself assented to the justice of the appeal. After his deposition, he went to Antioch, in which city he found the church with­out a pastor, and thence to Tarsus. There he lived on terms of intimacy with Sylvanus the bi­shop, and frequently preached in his church to the

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people, who were delighted with his discourses. The larger council to which he appealed was held at Seleuceia, consisting of more than 160 bishops. Before it Acacius was summoned by Cyril to ap­pear, but he refused. The latter was restored by the council. But his persevering adversary in­flamed the mind of the emperor against him, and in conformity with the wish of Acacius a synod was summoned at Constantinople ; Cyril was again deposed and sent into banishment in 360. At this council former charges were raked up against him, and new ones added by Acacius. On the death of Constantius, Cyril was recalled from exile, and restored a second time to his episcopate in 362. In the year 363, when attempts were made by Julian to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem, he is said to have predicted, from a comparison of the prophecies in Daniel and the New Testament, that the enterprise would be defeated. Under Jovian and in the beginning of Valens's reign, he lived in the quiet possession of his office. On the death of Acacius, he appointed Philumenus over the church at Caesareia ; but the Eutychians deposed the newly chosen bishop, and substituted one Cyril in his place. The bishop of Jerusalem, however, de­posed him who had been elevated by the Euty-chian party, and set over the Caesarean church Gelasius, his sister's son. Soon after, by order of Valens, Cyril was banished a third time from Je­rusalem, in 367. On the emperor's death, he returned to his native place, arid reassumed the functions of his office the third time, 378. Under Theodosius he continued in the undisturbed pos­session of the episcopal chair till his death. He seems, however, to have incurred the displeasure of his own church, rent and disfigured as it was with schisms, heresies, and moral corruption. Perplexed and uneasy, he asked assistance from the council of Antioch. (379.) Accordingly, Gre­gory of Nyssa was deputed by the council to go to Jerusalem and to pacify the church in that place. But the peace-maker departed without accomplish­ing the object of his mission. Cyril was present at the second general council held at Constantino­ple in 381, in which he was honoured with a high eulogium. It is supposed that he attended the council of Constantinople in 383. His death took place in 386.

His works consist of eighteen lectures to cate­chumens (KarTJx^frejy <£wTz£0,ueVa?j'), and five to the newly-baptized (^vcrrayc^yLKcil Kar^x'^jo'^'s Trpos rovs yeo^wTicrrous). These were delivered about the year 3475 in his youth, as Jerome says, and when he was still presbyter. The first eigh­teen are chiefly doctrinal, consisting of an exposi­tion of the articles in the creed of the church ; while the last five respect the rights of baptism, chrism, and the Lord's supper. These treatises have very great value in the eyes of the theologian, inasmuch as they present a more complete system of theology and a more minute description of the rites of the church at that early period than are to be found in any other writer of the same age. In their style and language there is nothing florid or oratorical; the composition is plain, didactic, and inelegant. The authenticity of these catecheses has been questioned by some, especially by Oudi-nus (de Script. Eccl. Ant. vol. i. p. 459, et seq.), yet no good ground has been adduced for enter­taining such doubts. It has been thought, with reason, that Cyril was once a Semi-Arian, and

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