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CYRIADES.

of Aeetion. But the persons who were sent out for this purpose were moved by the smiles of the infant, and spared his life. Afterwards, however, they made a second attempt, but they now could not find the child, for his mother had concealed him in a chest (/cui|/eA7?), from which he derived his name, Cypselus. When he had grown up to manhood, he came forward as the champion of the demos against the nobles, and with the help of the people he expelled the Bacchiadae, and then estab­ lished himself as tyrant. (Aristot. Polit. v. 8, &c.) The cruelties which he is charged with at the beginning of his reign were the result of the vehement opposition on the part of the Bacchiadae, for afterwards his government was peaceful and popular, and Cypselus felt so safe among the Corinthians that he could even dispense with a body-guard. (Aristot. Polit. v. 9 ; Polyaen. v. 31.) Like most other Greek tyrants, Cypselus was very fond of splendour and magnificence, and he appears to have accumulated great wealth. He dedicated at Delphi the chapel of the Corinthians with a bronze palm-tree (Prut. Conv. Sept. Sap. 21, Symp. Quaest. viii. 4); and at Olympia he erected a golden statue of Zeus, towards which the wealthy Corinthians were obliged to pay an extraordinary tax for the space often years. (Strab. viii. pp. 3-53, 378 ; comp. Pseud. Aristot. Oecon. ii. 2 ; Suid. and Phot. s. v. Kt^eAos.) Cypselus ruled at Corinth for a period of thirty years, the beginning of which is placed by some in b. c. 658, and by others in 655. He was succeeded in the tyranny at Corinth by his son Periander. The celebrated chest of Cypselus, consisting of cedar wood, ivory, and gold, and richly adorned with figures in relief, of which Pausanias (v. 17, &c.) has preserved a description, is said to have been acquired by one of the ancestors of Cypselus, who kept in it his most costly treasures. It afterwards remained in the possession of his descendants, and it was in this chest that young Cypselus was saved from the persecutions of the Bacchiadae. His grateful de­ scendants dedicated it in the temple of Hera at Olympia, where it was seen by Pausanias about the end of the second century after Christ. (Comp. Miiller, Archaeol. d. Kumt. § 57. 2, &c.; Thiersch, Epocli. p. 166, &c.) [L. S.]

CYRENE ( KupTfn?), a daughter of Hypseus or Peneius by Chlidanope, a granddaughter of Peneius and Creusa, was beloved by Apollo, who carried her from mount Pelion to Lib}Ta, where Gyrene derived its name from her. She became by Apollo the mother of Aristaeus. (Pind. Pytli. ix. 5. &c. ; Apollon. Khod. i. 500, &c.; Diod. iv. 81; Serv. ad Aen. iv. 42, 317; Hygin. Fab. 161.) It is a mere mistake that Justin (xiii. 7) calls Anthocus, Nomius, and Argaeus sons of Cyrene. (Comp. aristaeus.) There are two other mythi­ cal personages of the name of Cyrene. (Hygin. Fab. 14 ; Apollod. ii. 5. § 8.) [L. S.]

CYRIADES stands first in the list of the thirty tyrants enumerated by Trebellius Pollio [aureolus], from whose brief, indistinct, and apparently inaccurate narrative we gather that, after having robbed his father, whose old age he had embittered by dissipation and vice, he fled to the Persians, stimulated Sapor to invade the Ro­man provinces, and, having assumed the purple togsther with the title of Augustus, was slain by his own followers after a short career of cruelty and crime. Gibbon thinks fit to assume that these

CYRILLUS.

events took place after the defeat and capture of Valerianus (a. d. 260) ; but our only authority expressly asserts, that the death of the usurper happened while the emperor was upon his march to the East (a. d. 258 or 259); and by that state­ ment we must, in the absence of all other evidence, be content to abide. The medals published by Groltzius and Mediobarbus are rejected by numis- matologists as unquestionably spurious. (Trebell. Poll. Trig. Tyr. i.) [W. R.J

CYRILLUS, a Graeco-Roman jurist, who wrote shortly after the compilations of Justinian were formed. From the scholiast on the Basilica (vii. p. 89) it may be inferred, that he translated into Greek the Digest at length (to TrAriros, Reiz, ad Theopli. p. 1246, § 17). He also composed a commentary on the Digest, which is cited by the name *V5;|—a word which does not mean an alpha­betical register, or index in the modern sense. (Bas. ii. pp. 190, 192.) Some have thought that, as 'i?§i£ means a summary abridgment of the con­tents of the titles, so irXdros means an extended commentary or paraphrase; while Hugo (7?. jR. G. p. 1077) mentions a suggestion made to him, that TrAaros and fr§i£ are used synonomously, the latter word being interpreted in the Glossae Nomicae by ep/ATlveia.. Cyrillus is designated, along with Ste-phanus (who also wrote an Index), by the name 'IvSiKGVTqs. (Bas. iii. p. 415.) On the authority of Ant. Augustinus, Suarez (Notit. Basil. § 19) cites Matt. Blastares (in Praef. Syntag.} to shew

that Cyrillus interpreted the Digest tear' firiTOj.irivt but, in the edition of Blastares published by Bp. Beveridge (Synodicon, ii.), the name of Cyrillus does not occur in the context referred to. Cyrillus also commented upon the Code. (Bas. iii. pp. 60, 61.) Sometimes he is quoted by the scholiasts on the Basilica, and sometimes his opinions are embo­died in the text. (Bas. v. .pp. 44, 82, 431,-Z?«s. iv. p. 410.) He does not appear to have commented upon the Novells; and Reiz (ad Theoph. pp. 1235, 1245) has observed, that both Cyrillus and Ste-phanus must have written before a. d. 535, when the 115th Novell was promulgated. In Bas. v. 225 is a quotation from Cyrillus stating the law de Inofficioso Testamento as it existed before it was altered by the 115th Novell, which an eminent jurist could scarcely have overlooked or been igno­rant of.

C. E. Zachariae seems to think that there were two jurists named Cyrillus : one, who was among the preceptors of the jurists that flourished in the time of Justinian; another, who was among the jurists that flourished in the period immediately after the compilation of the Corpus Juris. (Hist. J. G. R. § 14, 1, a., ib. § 14, 5, c.) Zachariae indeed does not expressly say that there were two^, but, unless he thinks so, his mode of statement is calculated to mislead. The early Cyrillus is re­ferred to (if Zachariae properly expresses his meaning) in Bus. i. pp. 583, 646 (ed. Heimbach), in both of which passages he is designated by the honourable title Heros. In the passage, p. 646, Heros Patricius, who was a contemporary of Jus­tinian, seems (as quoted by the Scholiast) to call Cyrillus " the general schoolmaster of the world ;" but the meaning is ambiguous, and the high-flown compliments to Cyrillus may be the Scholiast's own. It is the later Cyrillus (if Zachariae ex­presses what he intends) who, in Bas. i. p. 789 (ed. Heimbach), cites Stephanus, his contemporary

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