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CYNTHIA and CY'NTHIUS (Kvvdla and Kui'Oio^), surnames respectively of Artemis and Apollo, which they derived from mount Cynthus in the island of Delos, their birthplace. (Callim. Hymn, in Del. 10; Hor. Carm. i. 21. 2, iii. 28. 12; Lucan, i. 218.) [L. S.]
CYPARISSUS (Kiwdpio-ffos), a youth of Cea, a son of Telephus, was beloved by Apollo and Zephyrus or Silvanus. When he had inadvertently killed his favourite stag, he was seized with immo derate grief, and metamorphosed into a cypress. (Ov. Met. x. 120, &c.; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 64, 680, Eclog. x. 26, Gc.org. i. 20.) Another Cyparissus is mentioned by Eustathius. (Ad Horn. R. ii. 519.) [L. S.]
CYPRIA, CYPRIS, CYPRIGENEIA, or CYPRO'GENES (Kvirpia, Kvirpis, Kvirpiyeveia, KurTpoyez/rjs), surnames of Aphrodite, who was born in the island of Cyprus, which was also one of the principal seats of her worship. (Horn. II. v. 458; Pind. Ol. i. 120, xi. 125, Pytli. iv. 383; Tibull. iii. 3. 34; Hor. Carm. i. 3. 1.) [L. S.]
CYPRIANUS, THA'SCIUS. This celebrated prelate was a native of Africa, born, although the exact year cannot be ascertained, about the beginning of the third century. We are not acquainted with the particulars of his life as long as he remained a Gentile ; but it is evident from his writings that he must have been educated with no common care. St. Jerome and Lactantius assure us, that he practised the art of oratory, and taught rhetoric with distinguished success, and by this or some other honourable occupation he realised considerable wealth. About the year A. d. 246, he was persuaded to embrace Christianity by the exhortations of Caecilius, an aged presbyter of the church at Carthage, and, assuming the name of the spiritual patron by whom he had been set free from the bondage of Paganism, was henceforward styled thascius caecilius cyprian us. At the same period he sold all that he had, and distributed the price among the poor. The popularity acquired by this liberality, combined probably with the reputation he had previously enjoyed, and the pride naturally felt in so distinguished a proselyte, secured his rapid elevation. In a. d. 247 he was raised to the rank of a presbyter, and in the course of the following year the bishopric of Carthage was forced upon his reluctant acceptance by a large majority of the African clergy, not without strenuous opposition, however, from a small party headed by Novatus [novatus] and Felicissimus, whose obstinate resistance and contumacy subsequently gave rise to much disorder and violence.
When the persecution of Decius burst forth (a. d. 250), Cyprian, being one of the first marked out as a victim, fled from the storm, in obedience, as he tells us (Epist. xiv.), to an intimation from heaven that thus he might best discharge his duty, and remained in retirement until after Easter of the following year. (a. d. 251.) During the whole of this period he kept up an active correspondence
with his clergy concerning various matters of discipline, much of his attention being occupied, aa the violence of the persecution began to abate, by the fierce controversies which arose with regard to the readmission of the Lapsi or apostates, who, according to the form and degree of their guilt, were designated Sacrijicati^ or Thurificati^ or Lil>d-latici, and were seeking, now that the danger had passed away, the restoration of their ecclesiastical privileges. Cyprian, although not perfectly consistent throughout in his instructions, always manifested a disposition to follow a moderate course ; and while on the one hand he utterly rejected the extreme doctrine of Novatianus, who maintained that the church had no power again to admit the renegades to her communion, so he was equally opposed to the laxity of those who were willing to receive them at once, before they had given evidence of their contrition by lengthened penitence, and finally decided that full forgiveness should not be extended to any of the offenders until God should have granted peace to his servants. Novatus and Felicissimus, taking advantage of these disputes, endeavoured to gain over to their faction many of the impatient and discontented Lapsi. Novatus actually appointed Felicissimus his deacon without the permission or knowledge of his diocesan, who in his turn caused Felicissimus to bo excommunicated; while the latter, far from submitting to the sentence, associated with himself five seditious presbyters, who breaking off in open schism, elected Fortunatus, one of their own number, bishop, and ventured to despatch an epistle to Cornelius, bishop of Rome, announcing their choice. This cabal, however, soon fell to pieces; Cornelius refused to listen to their representations, their supporters gradually dropped off, and their great bond of union was rudely snapped asunder by the defection of their great champion, Novatus, who, upon his visit to Rome at the commencement of a. d. 251, not only ceased to plead the cause of the Lapsi, but espoused to the full extent the views of Novatianus. Scarcely were these troubles happily allayed, and Cyprian once more securely seated in his chair, when fresh disturbances arose in consequence of the acrimonious contest between Cornelius and Novatianus [cornelius ; novatianus] for the see of Rome, the former finding a warm supporter in the bishop of Carthage, by whose exertions his authority was acknowledged throughout nearly the whole of Africa. In the month of June, a. d. 252, began what is commonly termed the persecution of Gallus, but which in reality originated in an unauthorized popular movement excited by the refusal of the Christians to join in the prayers and sacrifices offered up on account of the deadly pestilence which was devastating the various provinces of the Roman empire. On this occasion, as formerly, the mob of Carthage loudly demanded that Cyprian should be thrown to the lions ; but the danger does not appear to have been imminent, and while in Italy Cornelius was banished to Civita Vecchia, where he died on the 14th of September, and his successor Lucius suffered martyrdom a few months afterwards (5th March, 253), Africa remained comparatively undisturbed, and the political confusion consequent upon the assumption of the purple by Aetniliarms restored to the church external tranquillity, which continued uninterrupted for nearly four years. But in proportion as there was repose from without, so