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dictators, while the consuls are said to have remained at home. It is difficult to account for this state of things.
In b. c. 313 Papirius was invested with his fifth (or sixth) consulship. The war against the Sam-nites was still going on, but no battle was fought, although the Romans made permanent conquests, and thus gave the war a decided turn in their favour. It was, as Livy states, again doubtful as to who had the command of the Roman armies in that year. In b. c. 309 Papirius was made dictator to conduct the war against the Samnites, to save the army of C. Marcius, who was in great distress in Apulia, and to wipe off the disgrace of Caudium, which Rome had suffered the year before. PI is appointment to the dictatorship was a matter of some difficulty. Q. Fabius, who had once been his magister equitum, and had nearly been sacrificed by him, was ordered to nominate Papirius. The recollection of what had happened sixteen years before rendered it hard to the feelings of Fabius to obey the command of the senate; but he sacrificed his own personal feelings to the good of the republic, and he nominated Papirius in the silence of night without saying a word. Papirius now hastened with the reserve legions to the assistance of C. Marcius. The position of the enemy, however, was so formidable, that for a time he merely watched them, though it would have been more in accordance with his vehement temper to attack them at once. Soon after, however, a battle was fought, in which the Samnites were completely defeated. The dictator's triumph on his return to Rome was very brilliant, on account of the splendid arms which he had taken from the enemy: the shields decorated with gold were distributed among the stalls of the bankers around the forum, probably for no other purpose than to be hung out during processions. This triumph is the last event that is mentioned in the life of Papirius, whence we must infer that he died soon after. He had the reputation of being the greatest general of his age. He did not indeed extend the Roman dominion by conquest, but it was he who roused Rome after the defeat and peace of Caudium, and led her to victory. But he was, notwithstanding, not popular, in consequence of his personal character, which was that of a rough soldier. He was a man of immense bodily strength., and was accustomed to partake of an excessive quantity of food and wine. He had something horrible and savage about him, for he delighted in rendering the service of the soldiers as hard as he could : he punished cruelly and inexorably, and enjoyed the anguish of death in those whom he intended to punish. (Liv. viii. 12, 23, 29. 30-36, 47, ix. 7, 12, 33-16, 22, 28, 38, 40 ; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. III. 31; Eutrop. ii. 4; Oros. iii. 15; Dion Cass. Excerpt. Vat. p. 32, &c., ed. Sturz; Cic. ad Fam. ix. 21 ; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome., iii. pp. 192 —250.)
4. L. papirius cursor, a son of No. 3, was censor in b. c. 272. (Frontin. de Aquaed. i. 6.)
5. L. papirius cursor, likewise a son of No. 3, was no less distinguished as a general than his father. He was made consul in b. c. 293 with Sp. Carvilius Maximus, at the time of the third Samnite war. The Samnites, after having made immense efforts, had invaded Campania; but the consuls, instead of attacking them there, penetrated into their unprotected country, and thus compelled
them to retreat. Papirius took the town of Duro* nia, and he as well as his colleague ravaged Sam-nium, especially the territory of Antium. He then pitched his camp opposite the Samnite army near Aquilonia, at some distance from the camp of-Carvilius. Several days passed before Papirius attacked the enemy, and it was agreed that Carvilius should make an attack upon Cominium on the same day that Papirius offered battle to the Samnites, in order to prevent the Samnites from obtaining any succour from Cominium. Papirius gained a brilliant victory, which he owed mainly to his cavalry, and the Samnites fled to their camp without being able to maintain it. They however still continued to fight against the two consuls,, and even beat Carvilius near Herculaneum; but it was of no avail, for the Romans soon after again got the upper hand. Papirius continued his operations in Samnium till the beginning of winter, and then returned to Rome, where he and his colleague celebrated a magnificent triumph. The booty which Papirius exhibited on that occasion was very rich; but his troops, who were not satisfied with the plunder they had been allowed, murmured because he did not, like Carvilius, distribute money among them, but delivered up everything to the treasury. He dedicated the temple of Qui-rinus, which his father had vowed, and adorned it with a solarium lioroloyium, or a sun-dial, the first that was set up in public at Rome. He was raised to the consulship again in b. c. 272, together
with his former colleague, Carvilius, for the ex ploits of their former consulship had made such an impression upon the Romans, that they were look ed up to as the only men capable of bringing the wearisome struggle with the Samnites to a close. They entirely realized the hopes of their nation, for the Samnites, Lucanians, and Bruttians were compelled to submit to the majesty of Rome. But we have no account of the manner in which those nations were thus reduced. On his return to Rome, Papirius celebrated his second triumph, and after this event we hear no more of him. (Liv. x. 9, 38, 39—47; Zonar. viii. 7; Oros. iii. 2, iv. 3; Frontin, de Aquaed. i. 6, Stratey. iii. 3; Plin. //. N. vii. 60, xxxiv. 7 ; Niebuhr, iii. pp. 390, £c.? 524, &c.) ,[L. S.]
CURSOR, CAE'LIUS, a Roman eques in the time of Tiberius, who was put to death by the emperor, in A. d. 21, for having falsely charged the praetor Magius Caecilianus with high treason. (Tacit. Ann. iii. 37.) [L. S.]
CURTIA GENS, an obscure patrician gens, of whom only one member, C. Curtius Philo, was ever invested with the consulship, b. c. 445. This consulship is one of the proofs that the Curtia gens must have been patrician, since the consulship at that time was not accessible to the plebeians; other proofs are implied in the stories about the earliest Curtii who occur in Roman history. The fact that, in b. c. 57, C. Curtius Peducaeanus was tribune of the people, does not prove the contrary, for members of the gens may have gone over to the plebeians. The cognomens which occur in this gens under the republic are peducaeanus, philo, and postumus or postumius. For those who are mentioned in history without a cognomen, see curtius. [L- S.]
CURITLIUS, a Roman who belonged to the party of Caesar, and who, after the victory of Ins party in b. c. 435 is described as in the possesmu