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CRONIUS.

CKOESUS.

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ship (ysvea-dai AeX^oi'). Croesus, having now the most unbounded confidence in the oracle, con­sulted it for the third time, asking whether his monarchy would last long. The Pythia replied that he should flee along the Hermus, when a mule became king over the Medes. By this mule was signified Cyrus, who was descended of two different nations, his father being a Persian, but his mother a Mede. Croesus, however, thought that a mule would never be king over the Medes, and proceeded confidently to follow the advice of the oracle about making allies of the Greeks. Upon inquiry, he found that the Lacedaemonians and Athenians were the most powerful of the Greeks; but that the Athenians were distracted by the civil dissensions between Peisistratus and the Alcmaeonidae, while the Lacedaemonians had just come off victorious from a long and dangerous war with the people of Tegea. Croesus therefore sent presents to the Lacedaemonians, with a re­quest for their alliance, and his request was grant­ed by the Lacedaemonians, on whom he had pre­viously conferred a favour. All that they did for him, however, was to send a present, which never reached him. Croesus, having now fully deter­mined on the war, in spite of the good advice of a Lydian named Sandanis (Herod, i. 71), and hav­ing some time before made a league with Amasis, king of Egypt, and Labynetus, king of the Baby­lonians, marched across the Halys, which was the boundary betweeen the Medo -Persian empire and

.his own. The pretext for his aggression was to avenge the wrongs of his brother-in-law Astyages, whom Cyrus had deposed from the throne of Media. He wasted the countiy of the Cappadocians (whom the Greeks called also Syrians) and took their strongest town, that of the Pterii, near Sinope, in the neighbourhood of which he was met by Cyrus, and they fought an indecisive battle, which was broken off by night. (b. c. 546.) The following day, as Cyrus did not offer, battle, and as his own army was much inferior to the Persian in num­bers, Croesus marched back to Sardis, with the intention of summoning his allies and recruiting his own forces, and then renewing the war on the return of spring. Accordingly, he sent heralds to the Aegyptians, Babylonians, and Lacedaemonians, requesting their aid at Sardis in five months, and in the meantime he disbanded all his mercenary troops. Cyrus, however, pursued him with a rapidity which he had not expected, and appeared before Sardis before his approach could be an­nounced. Croesus led out his Lydian cavalry to battle, and was totally defeated. In this battle Cyrus is said to have employed the stratagem of opposing his camels to the enemy's horses, which could not endure the noise or odour of the camels. Croesus, being now shut up in Sardis, sent again to hasten his allies. One of his emissaries, named Eurybatus, betrayed his counsels to Cyrus [Eu-rybatus], and before any help could arrive, Sardis was taken by the boldness of a Mardian, who found an unprotected point in its defences, after Croesus had reigned 14 years, and had been besieged 14 days. (Near the end of 546, b. c.) Croesus was taken alive, and devoted to the flames by Cyrus, together with 14 Lydian youths, probably as a thanksgiving sacrifice to the god whom the Persians worship in the symbol of fire. But as Croesus stood in fetters upon the pyre, the warning of Solon came to his mind, and having

broken a long silence with a groan, he thrice uttered the name of Solon. Cyrus inquired who it was that he called on, and, upon hearing the story, repented of his purpose, and ordered the fire to be quenched. When this could not be done, Croesus prayed aloud with tears to Apollo, by all the presents he had given him, to save him now, and immediately the fire was quenched by a storm of rain. Believing that Croesus was under a special divine protection, and no doubt also struck by the warning of Solon, Cyrus took Croesus for his friend and counsellor, and gave him for an abode the city of Barene, near Ecbatana. In his expedition against the Massagetae, Cyrus had Croesus with him, and followed his advice about the passage of the Araxes. Before passing the river, however, he sent him back to Persia, with his own son Cambyses, whom he charged to ho­nour Croesus, and Croesus to advise his son. When Cambyses came to the throne, and invaded Egypt, Croesus accompanied him. In the affair of Prexaspes and his son, Croesus at first acted the part of a flattering courtier, though not, as it seems, without a touch of irony (Herod, iii. 34) ; but, after Cambyses had murdered the youth, Croesus boldly admonished him, and was obliged to fly for his life from the presence of the king. The servants of Cambyses concealed him, thinking that their master would repent of having wished to kill him. And so it happened; but when Cambyses heard that Croesus was alive, he said

that he was glad, but he ordered those who had saved him to be put to death for their disobedience. Of the time and circumstances of Croesus's death we know nothing. A few additional, but unim­portant incidents in his life, are mentioned by Herodotus. Ctesias's account of the taking of Sardis is somewhat different from that of Hero­dotus. (Herod, i. 6, 7, 26—94, 130, 155, 207, 208, iii. 14, 34—36, v. 36, vi. 37, 125, viii. 35; Ctesias, Persica, 4, ed. Lion, ap. Phot. Cod. 72, p. 36, Bekker; Ptol. Hephaest. ap. Phot. Cod. 190, p. 146, b. 21, 148, b. 31; Pint. Sol. 27; Diod. ix. 2, 25 — 27, 29, 31 — 34, xvi. 56; Justin i. 7.) Xenophon, in his historical romance, gives some further particulars about Croesus which are unsupported by any other testimony and opposed to that of Herodotus, with whom, how­ever, he for the most part agrees. (Cyrop i. 5, ii. 1, iv. 1, 2, vi. 2, vii. 1—4, viii. 2.) [P. S.]

CROMUS (Kpco^os), a son of Poseidon, from whom Cromyon in the territory of Corinth was believed to have derived its name. (Pans. ii. 1. § 3.) A son of Lycaon likewise bore this name. (Pans. viii. 3. § 1.) [L. S.]

CRONIDES or CRONI'ON (Kpovi^s or Kpoyfoi/), a patronymic from Cronus, and very commonly given to Zeus, the son of Cronus. (Horn. II. i. 528, ii. Ill, &c.) [L. S.]

CRONIUS (KpJvtos), the name of two mythi­ cal personages, the one a son of Zeus by the nymph Himalia (Diod. v. 55), and the other a suitor of Hippodameia, who was killed by Oeno- maus. (Pans. vi. 21. § 7.) [L. S.]

CRONIUS (Kpovios), a Pythagorean philoso­pher. (Porphyr. Vit. Plot. 20 ; Euseb. Hist. Ecdes. vi. 19.) Ncmesius (de Anim. 2, p. 35) mentions a work of bis Trepl iraXiyyzveffias, and Origen is said to have diligently studied the works of Cro-nius. (Suicl. ^-y.'Hpryej'rjs-,) Porphyrius also states, that he endeavoured to explain the fables of the

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