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On this page: Cratinus – Cratippus – Crator – Cratos – Cratylus – Cremutius Cordus – Creon


Ant., the first part of which is upon Cratinus only.)

2. Cratinus the younger, an Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy, was a contemporary of Plato the philosopher (Diog. Laert. iii. 28) and of Corydus (Athen. vi. p. 241, c.), and therefore flou­rished during the middle of the 4th century b. c., and as late as 324 b. c. (Clinton, Fast. Hell. ii. p. xliii.) Perhaps he even lived down to the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (Athen. xi. p. 469, c., compared with vi. p. 242, a.), but this is improba­ble. The following plays are ascribed to him:— ©^pafiey-rjs, 'Oju.</>c£Ai7 (doubtful), 'Tirogo-•, Xetpeoi/; in addition to which, it is proba­ble that some of the plays which are ascribed to the elder Cratinus, belong to the younger.

(Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. i. pp. 411—414, iii. pp. 374-379.) [P. S.]

CRATINUS, the grammarian. [basileides, No. L]

CRATINUS,a legal professor at Constantinople and comes sacrarum largitionum, who was charged by Justinian, in a. d. 530, to compile the Digest along with Tribonian, the head of the commission, the professor Theophilus of Constantinople, Doro- theus and Anatolius, professors at Berytus, and twelve" patroni causarum, of whom Stephanus is the best known. The commissioners completed their task in three years. Cratinus does not ap­ pear to have been further employed in the other compilations of Justinian. The commission is re­ cited in the second preface to the Digest (Const. Tanta^ § 9), and Cratinus is one of the eight pro­ fessors to whom the constitutio Omnem (so called from its initial word), establishing the new system of legal education, is addressed. [J. T. G.]

CRATINUS, a painter at Athens, whose works in the Pompeion, the hall containing all things used in processions, are mentioned by Pliny (H. N. xxxv. 40. §§ 33, 43). [L. U.]

CRATIPPUS (Kpdrunros). 1. A Greek his­torian and contemporary of Thucydides, whose work he completed—r& Trapa\€i$>6evTa utt* avrov ffvvayayoov yeypatyev. (Dionys. Jud. de TTiucyd. 16.) The expression of Dionysius leads us to suppose that the work of Cratippus was not only a continuation of the unfinished history of Thucy­dides, but that he also gave an account ef every­thing that was omitted in the work of Thucydides. The period to which Cratippus appears to have carried his history, is pointed out by Plutarch (de dor. Athen. 1) to have been the time of Conon. (Comp. Marcellin. Vit. Thucyd. § 33; Plut. Vit. X Oral. p. 834.)

2. A Peripatetic philosopher of Mytilene, who was a contemporary of Pompey and Cicero. The latter, who was connected with him by intimate friendship, entertained a very high opinion of him, for he declares him to be the most distinguished among the Peripatetics that he had known (de Off. iii. 2), and thinks him at least equal to the greatest men of his school. (De Divin. i. 3.) Cratippus accompanied Pompey in his flight after the battle of Pharsalia, and endeavoured to comfort and rouse him by philosophical arguments. (Plut. Pomp. 75 ; comp. Aelian, V. H. vii. 21.) Several emi­nent Romans, such as M. Marcellus and Cicero himself, received instruction from him, and in b. c. 44 young M. Cicero was his pupil at Athens, and was tenderly attached to him. (Cic. Brut. 31, ad Fam. xii. 16, xvi. 21, de Off. i. 1, ii. 2, 7.) Young


Cicero seems also to have visited Asia in his com­ pany. (Ad Fam. xii. 16.) When Caesar was at the head of the Roman republic, Cicero obtained from him the Roman franchise for Cratippus, and also induced the council of the Areiopagus at Athens to invite the philosopher to remain in that city as one of her chief ornaments, and to continue his instructions in philosophy. (Plut. Cic. 24.) After the murder of Caesar, Brutus, while staying at Athens, also attended the lectures of Cratippus. (Plut. Brut. 24.) Notwithstanding the high opinion which Cicero entertained of the knowledge and talent of Cratippus, we do not hear that he wrote on any philosophical subject, and the only allusions we have to his tenets, refer to his opinions on divination, on which he seems to have written a work. Cicero states that Cratippus be­ lieved in dreams and supernatural inspiration (furor\ but that he rejected all other kinds of divination. (De Divin. i. 3, 32, 50, 70, 71, ii. 48, 52 ; Tertull. de Anim. 46.) [L. S.]

CRATOR (Kpcfrwp), a freedman of M. Aure-lius Verus, wrote a history of Rome from its foun­dation to the death of Verus, in which the names of the consuls and other magistrates were given. (Theophil. ad Antolyc. iii. extr.)

CRATOS ( Kpdros ), the personification of strength, is described as a son of Uranus and Ge. (Hes. Theog. 385 ; Aeschyl. Prom. init.; Apollod. i. 2. § 4.) [L. S.]

CRATYLUS (KparvAos), a Greek philosopher, and an elder contemporary of Plato. He professed the doctrines of Heracleitus, and made Plato ac­quainted with them. (Aristot. Metaphys. i. 6; Appul. de Dogmat. Plat. p. 2, ed. Elm.; Olympiod. Vit. Plat. p. 79, ed. Fischer.) The time at which Plato was instructed by Cratylus, is stated by Diogenes Laertius (iii. 6) to have been after the death of Socrates; but there are several circum­stances which prove that Plato must have been acquainted with the doctrines of Heracleitus at an earlier period, and K. F. Hermann has pointed out that it must have been in his youth that Plato ac­quired his knowledge of that philosophy. One among the dialogues of Plato is named after his master, Cratylus, who is the principal speaker in it, and maintains the doctrine, that things have received their names according to certain laws of nature ((^ucrei), and that consequently words correspond to the things which they designate. Hermogenes, the Eleatic, who had likewise been a teacher of Plato, asserts, on the other hand, that nature has nothing to do with giving things their suitable names, but that words are applied to certain things by the mere mutual consent (9-edei) of men. Some critics are of opinion, that the Cratylus introduced by Plato in his dialogue is a different person from the Cratylus who taught Plato the doctrines of Heracleitus, but the arguments adduced in support of this opinion do not seem to be satisfactory. (Stallbaum, de Cratylo Platonico, p. 18, &c,; K. F. Hermann, System der Plat. Philos. i. pp. 46, 106, 492, &c. ; Lersch, Sprachpliilos. der Alien, i. p. 29, &c.) [L. S.]


CREON (Kpeow). 1. A mythical king of Co­rinth, a son of Lycaethus. (Hygin. Fab. 25, calls him a son of Menoecus, and thus confounds him with Creon of Thebes.) His daughter, Glauce, married Jason, and Medeia, who found herself forsaken, took vengeance by sending Glance a garment which destroyed her by n're when she put

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