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CRATERUS.

him on 'all occasions where "a general of able and independent judgment was required. He was a man of a noble character, and although he was strongly attached to the simple manners and cus­toms of Macedonia, and was averse to the conduct which Alexander and his followers assumed in the East, still the king loved and esteemed him, next to Hephaestion, the most among all his generals and friends. In b. c. 324 he was commissioned by Alexander to lead back the veterans to Macedo­nia, but as his health was not good at the time, Polysperchon was ordered to accompany and sup­port him. It was further arranged that Antipater, who was then regent of Macedonia, should lead reinforcements to Asia, and that Craterus should succeed him in the regency of Macedonia; But Alexander died before Craterus reached Europe, and in the division of the empire which was then made, Antipater and Craterus received in common the government of Macedonia, Greece, the Illy-rians, Triballians, Agrianians, and Epeirus, as far as the Ceraunian mountains. According to Dexip-pus (ap. Pliot. Bill. p. 64, ed. Bekker), the go­vernment of these countries was divided between them in such a manner, that Antipater had the command of the armies and Craterus the adminis­tration of the kingdom. When Craterus arrived in Europe, Antipater was involved in the Lamian war, and was in a position in which the arrival of his colleague was a matter of the utmost im­portance to him, and enabled him to crush the daring attempts of the Greeks to recover their independence. After the close of this war Crate­rus divorced his wife Amastris, who had been given him by Alexander, and married Phila, the daughter of Antipater. Soon after Craterus ac­companied his father-in-law in the war against the Aetolians. and in b. c. 321 in that against Per-diccas in Asia. Craterus had the command against Eumenes, while Antipater marched through Cilicia to Egypt. Craterus fell in a battle against Eumenes, which was fought in Cappadocia, and Eumenes on being informed of his death, lamented the fate of his late brother in arms, honoured him with a magni­ficent funeral, and sent his ashes back to Macedo­nia. (Arrian, Anab.., ap. Phot. Bill. pp. 69, 224 ; Q. Curtius ; Diod. xviii. 16, 18, xix. 59; Plut. Alex. 47, Plioc. 25 ; Corn. Nep. Eum. 4 ; comp. antipater, amastris, alexander.) [L. S.]

CRATERUS(KpaT6po's), a brother of Antigonus Gonatas, and father of Alexander, the prince of Corinth. (Phlegon, de Mirab. 32 ; Justin, Prolog. xxxvi.) He distinguished himself as a diligent compiler of historical documents relative to the history of Attica. He made a collection of Attic inscriptions, containing decree's of the people (4/7j<|H0>(.c{Tcoj> (Tvvaycoyi]^ and out of them he seems to have constructed a diplomatic history of Athens. (Plut. Aristeid. 32, dm. 13.) This work is fre­quently referred to by Harpocration and Stephanas of Byzantium, the latter of whom (s. v. 'Nujatpaio^ quotes the ninth book of it. (Comp. Pollux, viii. 126; Schol. ad AriatopJi. Av. 1073, Ran. 323.) With the exception of the statements contained in these and other passages, the work of Craterus, which must have been of great value, is lost. (Niebuhr, Kleine Schrift. i. p. 225, note 39 ; Bb'ckh, Pref. to his Corp. Inscript. i. p. ix.) [L. S.]

CRATERUS (Kparep'?), a Greek physician, who is mentioned in Cicero's Letters (ad Ait. xii. 13, 14) as attending the daugh ter of Atticus, A ttica

CRATES.

(called also Caeciliaor Pomponia), h. c. 45. He is mentioned also by Horace (Sat. ii. 3. 161), Persius (Sat. iii. 65), and Galen (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, vii. 5, vol. xiii. p. 96, De Antid. ii. 8. vol. x. p. 147) ; and he may perhaps be the same person who is said by Porphyry (De Abstin. ab Ani­mal, i. 17, p. 61, ed. Cantab.) to have cured one of his slaves of a very remarkable disease. [W. A. G.]

CRATERUS," a sculptor of the first century after Christ, whose statues, executed together with Pythodorus, were much admired, and were re­ garded as a great ornament of the palace of the Caesars. (Plin. PI. N. xxxvi. 4 § 11.) The words "palatinas domos Caesarum," in that passage, com­ pared with the preceding ones, " Titi Imperatoris domo," are to be understood of the imperial palaces on the Palatine hill, and fix the date of Craterus to the time of the first emperors. [L. U.]

CRATES (KpctTT??), of athens, was the son of Antigenes of the Thriasian denras, the pupil and friend of Polemo, and his successor in the chair of the Academy, perhaps about b. c. 270. The inti­ mate friendship of Crates and Polemo was cele­ brated in antiquity, and Diogenes Laertius has preserved an epigram of the poet Antagoras, ac­ cording to which the two friends were united after death in one tomb. The most distinguished of the pupils of Crates were the philosopher Arcesilaus, Theodoras, the founder of a sect called after him, and Bion Borysthenites. The writings of Crates are lost. Diogenes Laertius says, that they were on philosophical subjects, on comedy, and also ora­ tions ; but the latter were probably written by Crates of Tralles. [crates of Tralles.] (Diog. Laert. iv. 21—23.) [A. S.J

CRATES (Kpa.T7}s)> of athens, a comic poet, of the old comedy, was a younger contemporary of Cratinus, in whose plays he was the principal actor before he betook himself to writing comedies. (Diog. Laert. iv. 23 ; Aristoph. Equit. 536-540, and Schol.; Anon, de Com. p. xxix.) He began to nourish in 01. 82. 4, b. c. 449, 448 (Euseb. Chron.\ and is spoken of by Aristophanes in such a way as to imply that he was dead before the Kniglils was acted, 01. 88. 4, b. c. 424. With respect to the character of his dramas, there is a passage in Aristotle (Pott. 5) which has been misunderstood, but which seems simply to mean, that, instead of making his comedies vehicles of personal abuse, he chose such subjects as admitted of a more general mode of depicting character. This is confirmed by the titles and fragments of his plays and by the testimony of the Anonymous writer on Comedy respecting his imitator, Phere-crates (p. xxix). His great excellence is attested by Aristophanes, though in a somewhat ironical tone (L c.; comp. Ath. iii. p. 117, c.), and by the fragments of his plays. He excelled chiefly in mirth and fun (Aristoph. 1. c.; Anon, de Com. /.c.), which he carried so far as to bring drunken per­sons on the stage, a thing which Epicharmus had done, but which no Attic comedian had ventured on before. (Ath. x. p. 429, a.) His example was followed by Aristophanes and by later comedians ; and with the poets of the new comedj^ it became a very common practice. (Dion Chrysost. Or at. 32, p. 391, b.) Like the other great comic poets, he was made to feel strongly both the favour and the inconstancy of the people. (Aristoph. I. c.) The Scholiast on this passage says, that Crates used to bribe the spectators,—a charge which Meineke

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