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We learn from Cosmas himself, that he composed a Universal Cosmography^ as also Astronomical tables^ in which the motions of the stars were described. He was likewise the author of a Commentary on the Canticles and an exposition on the Psalms. These are now lost. Leo Allatius thinks that he wrote the Chronicon Alexandrinum; but it is more correct to affirm, with Cave, that the author of the Chronicle borrowed largely from Cosmas, copying without scruple, and in the same words, many of his observations. (Montfaucon, Nova Collectio Pair, et Scriptor. Graecor. vol. ii.; Cave, Historia, Literaria, vol. i. pp. 515-16, Oxford, 1740; Fabric. Bibl Graee. vol. iv. p. 255.) [S.D.J COSMAS, a Graeco-Roman jurist, usually named cosmas magister, probably because he filled the office of magister officiorum under Romanus Senior ; although Reiz, in the index of proper names subjoined to his edition of Harmenopulus in the supplementary volume of Meermann's Thesaurus, is inclined to think that Magister was a family surname. In Leunclavius (J. G. R. ii. pp. 166, 167) are two sententiae (\f/>j<£oi) of Cosmas in the style of imperial constitutions, as if he had been authorized by Romanus to frame legal regulations. It further appears from a Novell of Romamis, published in the collection of Leunclavius (ii. p. 158), that Cosmas was employed by the emperor in the composition of his laws. Hence Assemani (Bibl. Jur. Orient, lib. ii. c. 297 pp. 582—584) is disposed to ascribe to Cosmas a legal work which is preserved in manuscript in the Royal Library at Vienna. It is a system or compendium of law, divided into 50 titles, and compiled in the first year of Romanus Senior (a. d. 919 or 920) under the name e/cAo??} voijlwv t£v *v eTTiroV^ 6KTi0eJuez>coz/. (Lambecius, Comment, in Bibl. Vindob. vi. p. 38; Zachariae, Hist. J. G. R. § 37.) The preface and tit. 1 of this work were first published by Zachariae in his edition of the Procheiron of Basileius (6 Trpox^ipos v6fj.os9 Heidelb. 1837). Cedrenus (in Constantino et Romano} mentions Cosmas as a patricius and logotheta dromi, the hippodromus being the name of the highest court of justice in Constantinople. Harmenopulus, in the preface to his Hexabiblus, acknowledges his obligations to the Roma'ica of Magister (to, 'Pco/mi'/ca tov Mayicrrpov Aeyo^ej/a), and Jac. Godefroi supposes that Cosmas is meant. In this, as in most other questions in the history of Graeco-Roman law, there is great difficulty in arriving at the truth; but we believe the Magister referred to by Harmenopulus to be Eustathius Patricius Romanus. (Reiz, ad Harmenop. in Meerm. Thes. viii. p. 6, n. 8, ib. pp. 399, 400; Pohl, ad Suares. Notit. Basil, p. 15, n. (0), ib. p. 52, n. (%); Zachariae, Hist. Jur. G. R. § 41.) [J. T. G.j
COSMAS (Kocr^as), a monk, according to the title in Brunck's Analecta, but according to that in Stephen's edition of the Planudean Anthology, a mechanician, is the author of one epigram in the Greek Anthology. (Anab. iii. p. 127 ; Jacobs, iv. p. 96.) Whether he is the same person as cosmas indicopleustes, or as the cosmas of jerusa lem, or whether he was different from both, is altogether uncertain. [P. S.] CO'SROES, king of Parthia. [AnsACEsXXV.] CO'SROES, king of Persia, [sassanidae.] COSSI'NIUS, the name of a Roman family which came from Tibur. None of its members ever obtained any of the higher offices of the state. . 1. L. cossinius, of Tibur, received the Roman
franchise in consequence of the condemnation of T. Caelius, whom he had accused. (Cic. pro Ball). 23.) He is perhaps the same as the Cossi nius who was one of the legates in the army of the praetor P. Varinius, and who fell in battle against Spartacus, b. c. 73. (Plut. Crass. 9.)
2. L. cossinius, a Roman knight and son of the preceding (Cic. pro Balb. 23), was a friend of Cicero, Atticus, and Varro. Cicero mentions his death in b. c. 45, and expresses his grief at his loss. (Cic. ad Ait. i. 19, 20, ii. 1, ad Fam. xiii. 23; Varr. R. R. ii. 1; Cic. ad Att. xiii. 46.)
3. L. cossinius anchialus, a freedman of No. 2, is recommended by Cicero to Ser. Sulpicius in b. c. 46. (Cic. ad Fam. xiii. 23.)
4. cossinius, a Roman knight and a friend of Nero's, was poisoned by mistake by an Egyptian physician, whom the emperor had sent for in order to cure his friend. (Plin. //. N. xxix. 4. s. 30.)
COSSUSj the name of a patrician family of the Cornelia gens. This family produced many illustrious men in the fifth century before the Christian aera, but afterwards sunk into oblivion. The name " Cossus" was afterwards revived as a praenomen in the family of the Lentuli, who belonged to the same gens. The Cossi and Maluginenses were probably one family originally, for at first both these surnames are united, as for instance, in the case of Ser. Cornelius Cossus Maluginensis, consul in b. c. 485. [maluginensis.] Afterwards, however, the Cossi and Maluginenses became two separate families.
1. ser. cornelius M. f. L. n. Cossus, one of the three consular tribunes in b. c. 434, though other authorities assign consuls to this year. (Diod. xii. 53 ; Liv. iv. 23.)
2. ser. cornelius (M. f. L. n.) Cossus, probably brother of the preceding, was consul in b. c. 428 with T. Quinctius Pennus Cincinnatus II., and two years afterwards, b. c. 426, one of the four consular tribunes, when he was entrusted with the care of the city, while his three colleagues had the conduct of the war against Veii. But the latter having met with a repulse, Cossus nominated Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus dictator, who in his turn appointed Cossus master of the horse.
It was this Cossus who killed Lar Tolumnius, the king of the Veii, in single combat, and dedicated his spoils in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius— the second of the three instances in which the spolia opima were won. But the year in which Tolumnius was slain, was a subject of dispute even in antiquity, Livy following, as he says, all his authorities, places it in b. c. 437, nine years before the consulship of Cossus, when he was military tribune in the army of Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus, who is said to have been dictator in that year likewise. At the same time the historian brings forward several reasons why this was improbable, and mentions in particular that Augustus had discovered a linen breastplate in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, on which it was stated that the consul Cossus had won these spoils. But as the year of Cossus' consulship was, according to the annalists, one of pestilence and dearth without any military operations, it is probable that Tolumnius was slain by Cossus in the year of his consular tribunate, when he was master of the horse, especially since it is expressly placed in that year by some writers. (Val. Max. iii. 2. § 4 ; Aur. Vict. de Vir. III. 25.) In dedicating the spoils, Cossus would have added