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CONSTANTIUS.

sopher of Sicily. (KwcrTavTlvov $>L\off6(f>ov rov ^,LK€\ov; Lambec. Bill. Caesar. L. V. Cod. 333, p. 295 ; Jacobs, AntJiol. Grace, xiii. p. 874; Fa­ bric. Bill. Graec. iv. 469.) [P. S.]

CONSTANTIUS I. FLA'VIUS VALE'-RIUS, surnamed CHLORUS (o XAwpo's), "the Pale," Roman emperor, a. d. 305-306, the father of Consta.ntine the Great, was the son of one Eu-tropius, of a noble Dardanian family, and Claudia, the daughter of Crispus, who was the (younger ?) brother of the emperors Claudius II. and Quintilius. He was probably born in 250. Distinguished by ability, valour, and virtue, Constantius became governor of Dalmatia during the reign of the em­peror Cams, who, disgusted with the extravagant conduct of his son Carinus, intended to adopt and appoint as his successor the more worthy Constan­tius. Death prevented Carus from carrying that plan into execution, and the reward of Constantius was left to the emperors Diocletian and Maximian, who had experienced that the government of the immense Roman empire, in its perpetual and hos­tile contact with so many barbarians, was a burden too heavy not only for one, but even for two em­perors, however distinguished they were. They consequently resolved that each should appoint a co-regent Caesar, and their choice fell upon Con­stantius, who was adopted by Maximian, and Galerius, who was adopted by Diocletian. Both the Caesars were obliged to repudiate their wives, and Galerius was married to Valeria, the daughter

of Diocletian, while Constantius received the hand of Theodora, the daughter of the wife of Maximian. Their appointment as Caesars took place at Nico-medeia on the 1st of March, 292. The govern­ment of the empire was distributed among the four princes in the following manner : Constantius was set over the provinces beyond the Alps, that is, Gaul, Britain, and Spain (?) ; Galerius received both the Illyriae and Moesia, an extensive tract comprising all the countries from the Inn in Ger­many to mount Athos and the shores of the Archi­pelago, and from the Adriatic Sea to the mouth of the Danube ; Maximian governed Italy and Africa; and Thrace, Egypt, and all the Asiatic provinces were reserved for the authority of Diocletian. The first and most important business of Constantius was the reunion of Britain with the empire, as Carausius had succeeded in making himself inde­pendent of the authority of Diocletian and Maxi­mian. [carausius.] After the murder of Carau­sius by Allectus in 293, this officer seized the government; but Britain was taken from him after a struggle of three years [allectus], and Constantius established his authority there. Some time afterwards, the Alemanni invaded Gaul. A pitched battle took place, in 298, between them and Constantius at Lingones, in Lugdunensis Prima, now Langres : the Romans were nearly routed, when Constantius restored the battle, de­feated the enemj', and killed either 60,000 or 6000 barbarians. They suffered another defeat at Vin-donissa, now Windish, in Switzerland : there are doubts with regard to this battle. After the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, in 305, Constantius and Galerius assumed the title and dignity of Augusti, and ruled as co-emperors. Constantius died fifteen months afterwards (25th of July, 306) at Eboracum, now York, on an expedi­tion against the Picts5 in which he was accompanied by his son Constantine, whom he had by his first

CONSTANTIUS.

wife, Helena, whom he had repudiated. The same Constantine, afterwards the Great, succeeded him in his share of the government. Constantius was one of the most excellent characters among the later Romans, and it is to be regretted that we know so little about him. His administration of his provinces procured him great honour, for he took the most lively interest in the welfare of the people, and was so far from imitating the rapacity of other governors, that he was not even provided with such things as are necessary to men of his rank, though a vulgar appellation calls them luxu­ ries. In his abstinence from luxuries he seems, however, to have shewn some affectation. The Pagans praised him for his humanity, and the Christians for his impartiality and toleration, Theophanes calls him XptcrTLavotypuv, or a man of Christian principles. His conduct during the per­ secution of the Christians by Diocletian was very humane. It is not known whence he received the surname of Chlorus, or the Pale, which is given to him only by later Byzantine writers. Gibbon (vol. ii. p. 118, note 1. ed. 1815) observes, that any remarkable degree of paleness seems inconsistent with the rubor mentioned in the Panegyrics (v. 19). Besides his son and successor, Constantine, Constantius had by his second wife, Theodora, three sons and three daughters, who are mentioned in the genealogical table prefixed to the life of constantinus I. (Eutrop. ix. 14-23; Aurel. Vict. Caes. 39, &c., Epit. 39; Zosira. ii. 7, &c.; Theo- phan. pp. 4-8, ed. Paris; Panegyric. Veter. iv. 3, vi. 4, 6 ; Euseb. Vit. Const, i. 13-21 ; Treb. Pol- lio, Claudius, 3. 13; Ael. Spart. Ael. Verus^ 2; Vopiscus, CarinuS) 16, 17, Aurelianus, 44, Probus, 22 ; Amm. Marc. xix. 2.) [ W. P.]

COIN OF CONSTANTIUS I.

CONSTA'NTIUS II., FLAVIUS JULIUS,

Roman emperor, a. d. 337-361, whose name is sometimes written Flavius Claudius Constantius, Flavius Valerius Constantius, and Constantinus Constantius. He was the third son of Constantine the Great, and the second whom he had by his se­cond wife, Fausta ; he was born at Sirmium in Pan-nonia on the 6th of August, a. d. 317, in the con­sulate of Ovidius Gallicanus and Septimius Bassus. He was educated with and received the same care­ful education as his brothers, Constantine and Con-stans, was less proficient in learned pursuits and fine arts, but surpassed them in gymnastic and military exercises. He was created consul in 326, or perhaps as early as 324, and was employed by his father in the administration of the eastern provinces. At the death of his father in 337, Constantius was in Asia, and immediately has­tened to Constantinople, where the garrison had already declared that none should reign but the sons of Constantine, excluding thus the nephews of the late emperor, Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, from the government of those provinces which had been assigned to them by Constantine, who had placed Dalmatius over Greece, Macedonia, Thrace,

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