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the two best generals of the usurper. Constantine was besieged by Sarus in Vienna, now Vienne in Dauphine ; but, assisted by the skill of Edobincus and especially Gerontius, the successors of Justi­nian and Nervigastes in the command of the army, he defeated the besiegers, and drove them back beyond the Alps. Upon this, he took up his resi­dence at Arelatum, now Aries, and sent his son Constans, whom he created Caesar, into Spain. At the head of the Honoriani, a band of mercenary barbarians, Constans soon established the authority of his father in Spain (a. d. 408), and was re­warded with the dignity of Augustus.

In the following year Honorius judged it pru­dent to acknowledge Constantine as emperor, in order that he might obtain his assistance against the Goths. Constantine did not hesitate to arm for the defence of Honorius, having previously ob­tained his pardon for the assassination of Didymus (Didymius) and Verinianus (Verenianus), two kinsmen of Honorius, who had been killed by order of Constantine for having defended Spain against his son Constans ; and he entered Italy at the head of a strong army, his secret intention being to depose Honorius and to make himself master of the whole Western empire. He had halted under the walls of Verona, when he was suddenly recalled to Gaul by the rebellion of his general, Gerontius, who, having the command of the army in Spain, persuaded the troops to support his revolt, In a short time, Gerontius was master of Spain; but, instead of assuming the purple, he had his friend Maximus proclaimed emperor, and hastened into Gaul, where Constantine had just arrived from Italy. Constans, the son of Constantine, was taken prisoner at Vienna, and put to death, and his father shut himself up in Aries, where he was besieged by Gerontius. This state of things was suddenly changed by the arrival of Constantius, the general of Honorius, with an army strong enough to compel Gerontius to raise



the siege and to fly to the Pyrenees, where he perished with his wife. Constantius commanded part of his troops to pursue him; with the other part he continued the siege, as is related under constantius, and afterwards compelled Constan­ tine to surrender on condition of having his life preserved. Constantine and his second son Julian were sent to Italy; but Honorius did not keep the promise made by his general, and both the captives were put to death. The revolt of Con­ stantine is of great importance in the history of Britain, since in consequence of it and the rebel­ lion of the inhabitants against the officers of Con­ stantine, the emperor Honorius gave up all hopes of restoring his authority over that country, and recognized its independence of Rome,—a circum­ stance that led to the conquest of Britain by the Saxons. (a. d. 411.) (Zosiin. lib. v. ult. and lib. vi., the chief source ; Oros. vii. 40—42 ; Sozom. ix. 11—13; Jornandes, de Reb. Goth. p. 112, ed. Lindenbrog; Sidon. Apoll. Epist. v. 9 ; Prosper, Chron., Honorio VII. et Theodosio II. Coss.3 Theodosio Aug. IV. Cons.) [W. P.]


CONSTANTINUS I., FLA'VIUS VALE'-RIUS AURE'LIUS, surnamed MAGNUS or "the Great," Roman emperor, A. d. 306-337, the eldest son of the emperor Constantius Chlorus by his first wife Helena. His descent and the prin­cipal members of his family are represented in the following genealogical table :—

Crispus, brother of the emperors Claudius II. and Quintilius. Claudia, married Eutropius.

Constantius Chlorus, Augustus in A. d. 305 ; died at York in a.d. 306 ; married 1. Helena the Saint,

2. Theodora.

constantinus magnus. Married, 1. Minervina; 2. Fausta, Further issue of Constantius Chlo-daughter of the emperor Galerius and his second wife Eutropia. rus by Theodora, see below.

4. Constans; bom, 320 ; Caesar, 333 (335?); Emp. 337 ; killed, 350; marr. Olym-pia; no issue known.

5. Constantius or Constantia ; married 1. her kinsman Han-nibalianus, king of Pontus; 2. Constantine Gallus, emp.

6. Constantia or Constantina; nun.

7. Helena, Flavia Maxiiniana ; married the emperor Julian, her kinsman.

1. Crispus; Caesar, 316 ; put to death by order of his father, 326; married Helena; issue un­known.

3. Constantius II.; born, 317; Caesar, 326 (?); Emperor, 337; sole Emp. 353; died, 361; niarr. 1. unknown; 2. Flavia Aurelia Eusebia; 3. Maxi­ma Faustina.

2. Constantinus II., surnamed the Younger; born, 312; Caesar, 316 ; Emperor, 337; died, 340. Twice mar­ried (?); no issue known.


Flavia Maxima Constantia, married the emperor Gratiamis.

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