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conquests as far as the frontiers of Mauretania. During the same time the Longobards extended their conquests in Italy. Despised and hated by all his subjects, Constans lost his life by the hand of an assassin, at least in a most mysterious manner, perhaps by the intrigues of orthodox priests. On the 15th of July, 668, he was found drowned in his bath at Syracuse. He left three sons, Constantine IV. Pogonatus, his successor, Heraclius, and Tiberius. The name of his wife is not known. (Theophanes, p. 275, &c., ed. Paris ; Cedrenus, p. 429, &c., ed. Paris ; Zonaras, vol. ii. p. 87, &c., edo Paris; Glycas, p. 277, &c., ed. Paris ; Philo Byzantinus, Libellus de Septem Orbis Spectaculis, ed. Orelli, Leipzig, 1816, pp. 15, &c., 30, &c., and the notes of Leo Allatius, p. 97, &c.; Paulus Diaconus (Warnefried), De Gestis Longo- bardorum, iv. 51, &c,, v. 6—13, 30 ; Abulfeda, Vita Mohammed^ p. 109, ed. Reiske, Annales^ p. 65, &c., ed. Reiske.) [W. P.]

CONSTANTIA. 1. flavia valeria con­stantia, also called constantina, the daughter of Constantius Chlorus Caesar and his second wife, Theodora, was born after a. d. 292 and before a. d. 306, either in Gaul or Britain. She was a half-sister of Constantine the Great, who gave her in marriage in 313 to C. Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus, master of the East. In the civil war which broke out between Constantine and Licinius in 323, the latter was entirely defeated at Chrysopolis, now Scu­tari opposite Constantinople, and fled to Nicomedeia, where he was besieged by the victor. In order to save the-life of her husband, who was able neither to defend the town nor to escape, Constantia went into the camp of her brother, and by her earnest entreaties obtained pardon for Licinius. Afraid, however, of new troubles, Constantine afterwards gave orders to put him to death; but this severity did not alter his friendship for his sister, whom he always treated with kindness and respect. Con­stantia was first an orthodox Christian, having been baptized by pope Sylvester at Rome; but she afterwards adopted the Arian creed. It appears that she was governed by an Arian priest, whose name is unknown, but who was certainly a man of great influence, for it was through him that she obtained the pardon of Arius, who had been sent into exile in 325, after his opinion had been con­demned by the council at Nicaea. During the negotiations concerning the recall of Arius, Con­stantia fell ill, and, being visited by her brother Constantine, besought him on her death-bed to restore Arius to liberty. She died some time afterwards, between 328 and 330. She had a son by Licinius, whose name was Flavius Licinianus Licinius Caesar. (Philostorg. i. 9; Theophan. pp. 9, 27, ed. Paris; Euseb. H. E. x. 8 ; Socrat. i. 2 ; Zosim. ii. pp. 17, 28.)

2. flavia maxima constantia, the daugh­ter of the emperor Constantius II. and his third wife, Faustina, was born shortly after the death of her father in a. d. 361. In 375 she was destined to marry the young emperor Gratian, but, on her the emperor, was surprised in Illyria by the Quadi, who had invaded the country, and would have been carried away into captivity but for the timely succour of Messalla, the governor of Illyria, who brought her safely to Sirmium. When a child of four years, she had the misfortune to be seized with her mother by Procopius, a cousin of the emperor Julian, who had raised a rebellion in


365, and who carried his captives with him in all his expeditions, in order to excite his troops by their presence. Constantia died before her hus­band Gratian, that is, before 383, leaving no issue. (Amm. Marc. xxi. 15, xxv. 7, 9, xxix. 6.) [W.P.]

CONSTANTJNA, FLA'VIA JU'LIA, by some authors named CONSTA'NTIA, daughter of Constantine the Great and Fausta, was married to Hannibalianus, and received from her father the title of Augusta. Disappointed in her ambitious hopes by the death of her husband, she encouraged the revolt of Vetranio [vetranio], and is said to have placed the diadem on his brows with her own. hand. She subsequently became the wife of Gal-lus Caesar (a. d. 351), and three years afterwards (a. d. 354) died of a fever in Bithynia. This princess, if we can trust the highly-coloured picture drawn by Ammianus Marcellinus, must have been a perfect demon in the human form, a female fury ever thirsting for blood, and stimulating to deeds of violence and savage atrocity the cruel temper of Gallus, who after her death ascribed many of his former excesses to her evil promptings.

(Amm. Marc. xiv. 1, &c.; Aurel. Vict. 41, 42; Julian, Epist. ad Athen. p. 501, ed. 1630; Philos­ torg. Hist. Eccl. iii. 22, iv. 1; Theophan. Chronog. p. 37, ed. 1655.) [W. R.]

CONSTANTINUS, the second son of Con­stantius Chlorus, and the first whom he had by his second wife, Theodora, was probably murdered

by his nephew, the emperor Constantius. He is

mentioned only by Zonaras (vol. i. p. 246, ed. Paris). There is much doubt respecting him, al­ though it appears from Julianus (Epist. ad Pop. Athen. p. 497, ed. Paris), that Constantius put two uncles to death; so that we are forced to admit three brothers of Constantine the Great, one of whom, Hannibalianus, died before him, while his brothers Constantius and Constantinus survived him. The passage in Philostorgius (ii. 4) " Mer ov iroXvv xpovov (after the empress Fausta was suffocated in a bath) viro tcoi> aSeA^cS?' QapnaKois Kara t^v NiKo^^eiav SiarpiSovra dvaipeOijvai" says clearly, that at the death of Constantine the Great there was more than one brother of him alive. [constantius II.] [W. P.]

CONSTANTINUS, the tyrant, emperor in Britain, Gaul, and Spain, was a common soldier in the Roman army stationed in Britain in the be­ginning of the fifth century of our aera, during the reign of the emperor Honorius. In a. d. 407 these troops rebelled, and chose one Marcus emperor, whom they murdered soon afterwards. They then swore obedience to one Gratianus, and having got tired of him, they killed him likewise, and chose one of their comrades, Constantine, in his stead. They had no other motive for selecting him but the fact that he bore the venerated and royal name of Constantine. Although little fitted for the du­ties of his exalted rank, Constantine considered that he should soon share the fate of his predeces­sors, if he did not employ his army in some serious business. He consequently carried his troops im­mediately over to Gaul, and landed at Boulogne. This country was so badly defended, that Constan­tine was recognized in nearly every province before the year had elapsed in which he was invested with the purple. (a. d. 407.) Stilicho, who was commissioned by the emperor Honorius, sent his lieutenant Sarus, a Goth, into Gaul, who defeated and killed Justinian, and assassinated Nervigastes,

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