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On this page: Cnidia – Cnopias – Cnossus – Cnuphis – Cobidas – Cocalus – Cocceianus – Cocceius – Coccus – Cocles

CNUPHIS.

CNIDIA (Kj/i5i'cc), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the town of Cnidus in Caria, for which Praxiteles made Ms celebrated statue of the goddess. The statue of Aphrodite known by the name of the Medicean Venus, is considered by many critics to be a copy of the Cnidian Aphrodite. (Paus. L 1. § 3 ; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5; Lucian, Amor. 13 ; Hirt, Mytliol. Bilderb. p. 57.) [L. S.]

CNOPIAS (Kvwirias), of Alorus, an officer who, having seen some active service under Deme­trius II. and Antigonus Doson, was one of those employed by Agathocles and Sosibius, ministers of Ptolemy IV. (Philopator) to superintend the pro­vision of arms and the choice and training of the troops when Egypt was threatened with war by Antiochus the Great in b. c. 219. Cnopias is said by Polybius to have performed the duty entrusted to him with ability and zeal. (v. 63-65.) [E. E.]

CNOSSUS (Kvaaa-ds), the author of a work on the geography of Asia (ywypatyiftd rrjs A<r/as) quoted by the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (iv. 262). The name is perhaps corrupted. (Voss. Histor. Graec. p. 420, ed. Westermann.) [P. S.]

CNUPHIS (Kvovtyts), an Egyptian divinity, so called by Strabo (xvii. p.562); while other writers, such as Plutarch, probably more in conformity •with the genuine Egyptian name, call him Cneph (Ki/770). Plutarch (de Is. et Os. 21) states, that all the Egyptians contributed to the maintenance of the sacred animals, with the exception of the inha­ bitants of Thebais, who did not worship any mortal divinity, but an unborn and an immortal one, whom they called Cneph. This statement would lead us to the belief, that the inhabitants of The­ bais worshipped some spiritual divinity to the ex­ clusion of all others, and that consequently their religion was of a purer and more refined nature than that of the other Egyptians; but we know from other sources, that in Thebais, as well as in other places, animals were worshipped, such as the crocodile (Herod, ii. 69), the eagle (Diod. i. 87; Strab. xvii. p. 559), the ram [ammon], and a kind of harmless snake. (Herod, ii. 74.) The god Cneph himself was worshipped in the form of a serpent, as we learn from Strabo and Eusebius (Praep. Ev. i. 10), the latter of whom states, that Cneph was called lay the Phoenicians Agathodae- mon,. a name which occurs also in coins and in­ scriptions of the time of the Roman empire, in which the god himself is represented in the form of a serpent. It was probably the idea of which the serpent is the symbol, that gave rise to the opinion of Plutarch and others, that Cneph was a spiritual divinity; and when this notion had once become established, the symbol of the god became a matter of less importance, and was changed. Thus Eusebius (Praep. Ev. iii. 11) informs us, that the Egyptians called the creator and ruler of the world ($7)fj.iovpy6s) Cneph, and that he was represented in the form of a man, with dark com­ plexion, a girdle, and a sceptre in his hand, Cneph produced an egg, that is, the world, from his mouth, and out of it arose the god Phtha, whom the Greeks called Hephaestus. Most mo­ dern writers entertain about Cneph the same or nearly the same views as were propounded by the Greek philosophers, and accordingly regard him as the eternal spirit, and as the author of all that is in the world. Cnuphi is said to signify in the Coptic language the good spirit, like Agathodaemon. (Jablonsky, Panth. Aeyypt. i. 4.) [L. S.j

80S

COCLES.

COBIDAS, JOANNES, a Graeco-Roman ju­rist, who seems to have lived shortly after the time of Justinian. His name is spelt in various ways, as Gobidas, Cobidius, &c. He is one of the Greek jurists whose commentaries on the titles " de Pro-curatoribus et Defensibus" in the Digest and the Code (which titles, translated into Greek and ar­ranged, constitute the eighth book of the Basilica) were edited by D. Ruhnkenius and first published in the third and fifth volumes of Meermann's The­saurus. Extracts from the commentaries of Cobi-das on the Digest are sometimes appended as notes to the Basilica, and sometimes the Scholiasts on the Basilica cite Cobidas. (Basil, ed. Heimbach, i. pp. 359, 794, ii. p. 10.) In Basil, (ed. Fabrot.) iii. p. 182, Cobidas is found citing Cyrillus and Stephanus, contemporaries of Justinian, and in no extant passage does he refer to the Novellae of Leo; though Nic. Comnenus (Praenot. My stag. p. 372) mentions a Gobidas, logotheta genici, who wrote scholia on the Novellae of Leo. Cobidas is cited by Balsamo. {Ad Nomocan. Photii in Just, et Voell. Bibl. Jur. Canon^ p. 1118.)

Cobidas, the commentator on the Digest, is-usu­ally identified and may perhaps be the same with the Joannes Cubidius (Cobidius, Convidius, &e.) who wrote a IIoivaAio*>, or treatise on punishments. Of this jurist and professor (antecessor) Suarea (Notit. Basil. § 27) says, that Ant. Augustinus possessed some works or portions of works in ma­nuscript. Some fragments of the HoivaXiov are preserved in the appendix to the Ecloga of Leo and Constantine. This appendix consists of legal writings, chiefly of the eighth and ninth centuries, and was published from a Parisian manuscript by C. E. Zachariae in his work entitled Anecdota. (Lips. 1843, p. 191.) (Zachariae, Hist. Jur. Graeco-Rom. p. 30; Heimbach, Anecdota^ i. p. Ixxviii; Pohl, ad Snares. Notit. Basil, p. 137, n. (w); Fabric. Bibl. Graec. xii. p. 563.) [J. T. G.]

COCALUS (Kco/caAos), a mythical king of Sicily, who kindly received Daedalus on his flight from Crete, and afterwards killed Minos, who came with an army in pursuit of him. According to others, Minos was killed by the daughters of Cocalus. (Diod. iv. 78, 80 ;* Hygin. Fab. 44; Paus. vii. 4. § 5.) [L. S.]

COCCEIANUS, SA'LVIUS, the son of the brother of the emperor Otho, was quite a youth at his uncle's death in A. D. 69. He was afterwards put to death by Domitian for celebrating his uncle's birthday. Plutarch calls him Cocceius, but Coc-ceianus seems the correct form. (Tac. Hist. ii. 48 ; Plut. Ofh. 16; Suet. Oth. 10, Domit. 10.)

COCCEIUS, the name of a family which is first mentioned towards the latter end of the re­public, and to which the emperor Nerva belonged. All the members of this family bore the cognomen nerva.

COCCUS (kok/cos), an Athenian orator or rhe­ torician, was, according to Suidas (s. v.}, a disciple of Isocrates, and wrote rhetorical discourses (Aa- yovs pTjTOpiKovs). A passage of Quintilian (xiS. 10) has been thought to imply that Coccus lived at an earlier period than Isocrates and even Lysias; but it seems that Quintilian is speaking of the comparative distinction of the orators he mentions, rather than of their time. [P. S.]

COCLES, HORA'TIUS, that is, Horatius the " one-eyed," a hero of the old Roman lays, is said to have defended the Sublician bridge along with

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