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been a woman of great courage and spirit. (Plut. lug. 22 ; Appian, Mitli. 108 ; Justin. xxxviii. 3.)
13. A courtezan of the emperor Claudius. (Tac. Ann. xi. 30.)
14. A wife of the poet Martial, who has written an epigram relating to her. (Epic/, iv. 21.) [ J. E. B.]
CLEOPATRA (KXeorrdrpa), the authoress of a work on Cosmetics (Koo^Ti/coz/, or Koa^Ti/ca), who must have lived some time in or before the first century after Christ, as her work was abridged by Criton. (Galen, De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, i. 3. vol. xii. p. 446.) The work is several times quoted by Galen (ibid. i. 1, 2, 8, pp. 403, 432, 492, De Pond, et Mens. c. 10. vol. xix. p. 767), Ae'tius (Lib. Medic, ii. 2. 56, p. 278), and Paulus Aegi- neta. (De Re Med. iii. 2. p. 413.) Though at first sight one might suspect that Cleopatra was a fictitious name attached to a treatise on such a sub ject, it does not really appear to have been so, as, wherever the work is mentioned, the authoress is spoken of as if she were a real person, though no particulars of her personal history are preserved. A work on the Diseases of Women is attributed either to this Cleopatra, or to the Egyptian queen ; an epitome of which is to be found in Caspar Wolfs Volumen Gynaedorum, &c., Basil. 1566, 1586, 1597, 4to. [W. A. G.I
CLEOPHANTUS (K\e6<t>cu>ros). 1. A Greek physician, who lived probably about the beginning of the third century b. c., as he was the tutor of Antigenes (Cael. Aurel. De Morb. A out. ii. 10. p. 96) and Mnemon. (Gal. Comment, in Hippocr. " Epid. Ill" ii. 4, iii. 71, vol. xvii. pt. i. pp. 603, 731.) He seems to have been known among the ancients for his use of wine? and is several times quoted by Pliny (H. N. xx. 15, xxiv. 92, xxvi. 8), Celsus (De Medic, iii. 14. p. 51), Galen (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, ix. 6, vol. xiii. p. 310; De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. vii. 7, vol. xiii. p. 985 ; De Antid. ii. 1, vol. xiv. p. 108), and Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Adit. ii. 39, p. 176).
2. Another physician of the same name, who attended A. Cluentius Avitus in the first century b. c., and who is called by Cicero " medicus igno-bilis, sed spectatus homo" (pro Cluent. 16), must not be confounded with the preceding. [W. A.G.J
CLEOPHON (K\eo<j>£v). 1. An Athenian demagogue, of obscure and, according to Aristophanes (Ran. 677), of Thracian origin. The meanness of his birth is mentioned also by Aelian ( V. H. xii. 43), and is said to have been one of the grounds on which he was attacked by Plato, the comic poet, in his play called " Cleophon." (Schol. ad AristopJi. I. c.) He appears throughout his career in vehement opposition to the oligarchical party, of which his political contest with Critias, as referred to by Aristotle (Rliet. i. 15. § 13), is an instance; and we find him on three several occasions exercising his influence successfully for the prevention of peace with Sparta. The first of these was in b. c. 410, after the battle of Cyzicus, when very favourable terms were offered to the Athenians (Diod. xiii. 52, 53; Wess. ad loc.; Clinton, F. H. sub anno 410) ; and it has been thought that a passage in the " Orestes" of Euripides, which was represented in b. c. 408, was pointed against Cleophon and his evil counsel. (See 1. 892,
—KaTTi rw5' dvtararcu dvrip ns dOupoyXotXTcros, k. r. A.) The second occasion was after the battle of Argiimsae, b. c. 406, and the third after that of Aegospotami in the following year, when, resisting the demand of the enemy for the partial demolition of the Long Walls, he is said to have threatened death to any one who should make mention of peace. (Aristot. ap. Schol. ad Aristopli. Ran. 1528 ; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 38, c. Ctes. p. 75 ; Thirl-walPs Greece, vol. iv. pp. 89, 125, 158.) It is to the second of the above occasions that Aristophanes refers in the last line of the " Frogs," where, in allusion also to the foreign origin of Cleophon., the chorus gives him leave to fight to his heart's content in his native fields. During the siege of Athens by Lysander, b. c. 405, the Athenian council, in which the oligarchical party had a majority, and which had been denounced by Cleophon as a band of traitorous conspirators, were instigated by Satyrus to imprison him and bring him to trial on a charge of neglect of military duty, which, as Lysias says, was a mere pretext. Before a regular court of justice he would doubtless have been acquitted, and one Nicomachus therefore, who had been entrusted with a commission to collect the laws of Solon, was suborned by his enemies to fabricate a law for the occasion, investing the council with a share in the jurisdiction of the case. This law is even said to have been shamelessly produced on the very day of the trial, and Cleophon of course was condemned and put to death,—not, however, without opposition from the people, since Xenophon speaks of his losing his life in a sedition. (Lys. c. Nicom. p. 184, c. Agor. p. 130; Xen. Hell. i. 7. § 35.) The same year had already witnessed a strong attack on Cleophon by the comic poet Plato in the play of that name above alluded to, as well as the notices of him, not complimentary, in the " Frogs" of Aristophanes. If we may trust the latter (Tliesm. 805), his private life was as profligate as his public career was mischievous. By Isocrates also (de Pac. p. 174, b.) he is classed with Hyperbolus and contrasted with the worthies of the good old time, and Andocides mentions it as a disgrace that his house was inhabited, during his exile, by Cleophon, the harp-manufacturer. (Andoc. de Myst. p. 19.) On the other hand, he cannot at any rate be reckoned among those who have made a thriving and not over-honest trade of patriotism, for we learn from Lysias (de Arist. Son. p. 156), that, though he managed the affairs of the state for many years, he died at last, to the surprise of all, in poverty. (Comp. Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p. 171 &c.)
2. A tragic poet of Athens, the names of ten of whose dramas are given by Suidas (s. i?.). He is also mentioned by Aristotle. (Poet. 2, 22.) [E. E.]
CLEOPTOLEMUS (K\eoTn6\efws\ a noble Chalcidian, whose daughter, named Euboea, An- tiochus the Great married when, he wintered at Chalcis in b. c. 192. (Polyb. xx. 8 ; Liv. xxxvi. 11; Diod. Fragm. lib. xxix.) [E. E.]
CLEOSTIiATUS (KAeoVrparos), an astronomer of Tenedos. Censorimis (de Die Nat. c. 18) considers him to have been the real inventor of the Octaeteris, or cycle of eight years, which was used before the Metonic cycle of nineteen years, and which was popularly attributed to Eudoxus. Theo-phrastus (de Sign. Pluv. p. 239, ed« Basil. 1541) mentions him as a meteorological observer alosg