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CLEOPATRA.

B. c. 146, she seems to have wished to place on tiie throne, but was prevented by the accession of her brother, Physcon or Evergetes II. (Ptolemy VII.), to whom the crown and her hand were given. Her son was murdered by Physcon on the day of the marriage, and she was soon divorced to make way for her own daughter by her former marriage. On Physcon's retiring to Cyprus to avoid the hatred which his tyranny had caused, she solicited the aid of her son-in-law, Demetrius Nicator, king of Syria, against his expected attack, offering the crown of Egypt as an inducement. During the period of Physcon's voluntary exile, she lost another son (by her marriage with him.), whom Physcon barbarously murdered for the express purpose of distressing her, and sent her his mangled limbs, in Thyestean fashion, on her birth-day. Soon after this, she was obliged to take refuge with Deme­trius, fearing the return of Physcon, who, however, suspended his hostilities against her, on Alexander, whom he had employed against his disaffected sub­jects, setting up a claim to the throne of Egypt. (Justin. xxxviii, 8, 9, xxxix. 1, 2 ; Liv. Ep. 59; Diod. Ed. vol. ii. p. 602, ed. Wess.)

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6. Another daughter of Ptolemy VI. Philometor and Cleopatra [No. 4], man led, as we have seen, her uncle Physcon, and on his death was left heir of the kingdom in conjunction with whichever of her sons filie chose. She was compelled by her people

5. A daughter of Ptolemy VI. Philometor by the last-mentioned Cleopatra, married first Alexander Balas (b. c. 150), the Syrian usurper (I Mace. x. 57 ; comp. Joseph. Ant. xiii. 4. §§ 1, 5), and on his death Demetrius Nicator. (1 Mace. xi. 12; Joseph. Ant. xiii. 4. § 7.) During the captivity of the latter in Parthia, jealous of the connexion which he there formed with Rhodogune, the Parthian prin­cess, she married A ntiochus VII. Sidetes, his brother, and also murdered Demetrius on his return (Appian, Syr. 68 ; Liv. Ep. 60), though Justin and Josephus {Ant. xiii. 9. § 3) represent her as only refusing to receive him. She also murdered Seleucus, her son by Nicator, who on his father's death assumed the government without her consent. (Appian, Syr. 69 ; Justin. xxxix. ].) Her other son by Nicator, Antiochus VIII. Grypus, succeeded to the throne (11. c. 125) through her influence; but when she found him •unwilling to concede her sufficient power, she attempted to make away with him by offering him a cup of poison on his return from exercise. Having learnt her intention, he begged her to drink first, and on her refusal produced his witness, and then repeated his request as the only way to clear herself. On this she drank and died. (Justin, xxxix. 2.) She had another son, by Sidetes, Antiochus IX., surnamed Cyzicenus from the place of his education. The following coin represents on the obverse the heads of Cleopatra and her son Antiochus VIII. Grypus.

CLEOPATRA.

to choose the elder, Ptolemy VIII. Lathyrns, trot she soon prevailed on them to expel him, and make room for her younger son Alexander, her favourite (Paus. viii. 7), and even sent an army against La­thyrus to Cyprus, whither he had fled, and put to death the general who commanded it for allowing him to escape alive. Terrified at her cruelty, Alexander also retired, but was recalled by his mother, who attempted to assassinate him, but was herself put to death by him ere she could effect her object, b. c. 89. (Justin. xxxix. 4.)

7. A daughter of Ptolemy Physcon and Cleopatra [No. 6], married first her brother Ptolemy VIII. Lathyrus, but was divorced from him by his mother, and fled into Syria, where she married Antiochus IX. Cyzicenus, who was then in arms against his brother Grypus, about b. c. 117, and successfully tampered with the latter's army. A battle took place, in which Cyzicenus was defeated ; and she then fled to Antioch, which was besieged and taken by Grypus, and Cleopatra was surrendered by him to the vengeance of his wife Tryphaena, her own sister, who had her murdered in a temple in which she had taken refuge. (Justin. xxxix. 3.)

8. Another daughter of Ptolemy Physcon, mar­ried her brother Lathyrus (on her sister [No. 7]

being divorced), and on his exile remained in Egypt, and then married Antiochus XI. Epi-phanes, and on his death Antiochus X. Eusebes. She was besieged by Tigranes in Syria or Meso­potamia, and either taken and killed by him (Strab. xvi. p. 749), or, according to Josephus (Ant. xiii. 16. § 4), relieved by Lucullus' invasion of Ar­menia. She was the mother of Antiochus XIII. Asiaticus. She is more generally called Selene.

9. Daughter of Ptolemy IX. Lathyrus, usually called Berenice. [berenice, No. 4.J

10. Third and eldest surviving daughter of Pto lemy Auletes, was born towards the end of b. c. 69, and was consequently seventeen at the death of her father, who in his will appointed her heir of his kingdom in conjunction with her younger brothe:1, Ptolemy, whom she was to marry. The personal charms, for which she was so famed, shewed them­selves in early 3Touth, as we are told by Appian (B. C. v. 8), that she made an impression on the heart of Antony in her fifteenth year, when he was at Alexandria with Gabinius. Her joint reign did not last long, as Ptolemy, or rather Pothinus and Achillas, his chief advisers, expelled her from the throne, about b. c. 49. She retreated into Syria, and there collected an army with which she designed to force her brother to reinstate her. But an easier way soon presented itself; for in the following year Caesar arrived in Egypt in pursuit of Pompe}', and took upon himself to arrange mat­ters between Cleopatra and her brother. (Caes. B. C. i\i. 103, 107.) Being informed of Caesar's amatory disposition, she resolved to avail herself of it, and, either at his request, according to Plu­tarch, or of her own accord, clandestinely effected an entrance into the palace where he was residing, and by the charms of her person and voice and the fascination of her manner, obtained such an ascen­dancy over him, that, in the words of Dion Cassius (xiii. 35), from being the judge between her and her brother, he became her advocate. According to Plutarch, she made her entry into Caesar's apartment in a bale of cloth, which was brought by Apollodorus, her attendant, as a present to Caesar. However this may be, her plan fully

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