The Ancient Library

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On this page: Cleone – Cleonica – Cleonicus – Cleonides – Cleonymus – Cleopatra


2. A painter. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 40.) [L. U.]

CLEONE (KAeow?), one of the daughters of Asopus, from whom the town of Cleonae in Pelo­ ponnesus was believed to have derived its name. (Paus. ii. 15 § 1; Diod. iv. 74.) [L. S.]

CLEONICA. [pausanias.]

CLEONICUS (K\e6viKos), of Naupactus in Aetolia, was taken prisoner by the Achaean ad­miral in a descent on the Aetolian coast, in the last year of the social war, b. c. 217 ; but, as he was a Trpo^sj/os of the Achaeans, he was not sold for a slave with the other prisoners, and was ultimately released without ransom. (Polyb. v. 95.) In the same year, and before his release, Philip V. being anxious for peace with the Aetolians, employed him as his agent in sounding them on the subject. (v. 102.) He was perhaps the same person who is mentioned in the speech of Lyciscus, the Acar-nanian envoy (ix. 37), as having been sent by the Aetolians, with Chlaeneas, to excite Lacedaemon against Philip, b. c. 211. [chlaeneas.] [E. E.]

CLEONIDES. The Greek musical treatise attributed to Euclid, is in some MSS. ascribed to Cleonides. [eucleides.] His age and history are wholly unknown. (Fabric. Bibi. Graec. vol. iv. p. 79.) [W. F. D.]

CLEONYMUS (KXet&vvfws). 1. An Athe­nian, who is frequently attacked by Aristophanes as a pestilent demagogue, of burly stature, glut­tonous, perjured, and cowardly. (Aristoph. Ach. 88, 809, Eq. 953, 3290, 1369, Nub. 352, 399, 663, &c., Vesp. 19, 592, 822, pojc, 438, 656, 1261, Av. 289, 1475; comp. Ael. V. II. i. 27.)

2. A Spartan, son of Sphodrias, was much be­loved by Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus. When Sphodrias -was brought to trial for his incursion into Attica in b. c. 378, the tears of Cleonymus prevailed on the prince to intercede with Agesilaus on his behalf. The king, to gratify his son, used all his influence to save the accused, who was ac­cordingly acquitted. Cleonymus was extremely grateful, and assured Archidamus that he would do his best to give him no cause to be ashamed of their friendship. He kept his promise well, acting ever up to the Spartan standard of virtue, and fell at Leuctra, b. c. 371, bravely fighting in the foremost ranks. (Xen. Hell. v. 4. §§ 25—33; Plut. Ages. 25, 28.)

3. The younger son of Cleomenes II., king of Sparta, and uncle of Areus I., was excluded from the throne on his father's death, b. c. 309, in con­sequence of the general dislike inspired by his violent and tyrannical temper. In b. c. 303, the Tarentines, being at war with the Romans and Lucanians, asked aid of Sparta, and requested that the command of the required succours might be given to Cleonymus. The request was granted, and Cleonymus crossed over to Italy' with a con­siderable force, the mere display of which is said to have frightened the Lucanians into peace. Dio-dorus, who mentions this, says nothing of the effect of the Spartan expedition on the Romans, though it is pretty certain that they also concluded a treaty at this time with the Tarentines. (See Arnold, Hist, of Rome, vol. ii. p. 315.) According to some of the Roman annalists, Cleonymus was defeated

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and driven back to his ships by the consul, M. Aemilius ; while others of them related that, Ju-nius Bubulcus the dictator being sent against him, he withdrew from Italy to avoid a conflict. After abandoning a notion he had formed of freeing


the Sicilians from the tyranny of Agathocles, he sailed up the Adriatic and made a piratical descent on the country of the Veneti; but he was defeated by the Patavians and obliged to sail away. He then seized and garrisoned Corcyra, from which he seems to have been soon expelled by Demetrius Poliorcetes. While, however, he still held it, he was recalled to Italy by intelligence of the revolt of the Tarentmes and others whom he had reduced : but he was beaten off from the coast, and returned to Corcyra. Henceforth we hear no more of him till b. c. 272, when he invited Pyrrhus to attempt the conquest of Sparta. [acrotatus ; chelido nts.] (Diod. xx. 104, 105 ; Liv. x. 2 ; Strab. vi. p. 280 ; Paus. iii. 6; Plut. Agis, 3, Pyrrh. 26, &c.) [E. E.]

CLEOPATRA (KA-eoTrarpa). 1. A daughter of Idas and Marpessa, and wife of Meleager (Horn. II. ix. 556), is said to have hanged herself after her husband's death, or to have died of grief. Her real name was Alcyone. (Apollod. i. 8. § 3; Hygin. Fab. 174.)

2. A Danaid, who was betrothed to Etelces or Agenor. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5; Hygin. Fab, 170.) There are two other mythical personages of this name in Apollodorus. (iii. 12. § 2, 15. § 2.) [L. S.]

CLEOPATRA ( KAeoirefrrpa ). 1. Niece of Attalus, one of the generals of Philip of Macedonia. Philip married her when he divorced Olympias in b. c. 337 ; and, after his murder, in the next year she was put to death by Olympias, being either

compelled to hang herself (Justin, ix. 7) or boiled to death in a brazen cauldron. (Paus. viii. 7. § 5.) Her infant son or daughter, according to Justin, perished with her, being apparently looked upon as a rival to Alexander. (Just. I. c., and ix. 5 ; Diod. xvi. 93, xvii. 2; Plut. Aleoc. 10.)

2. A daughter of Philip and Olympias, and sister of Alexander the Great, married Alexander9 king of Epeirus, her uncle by the mother's side, b. c. 336. It was at the celebration of her nup­tials, which took place on a magnificent scale at Aegae in Macedonia, that Philip was murdered. (Diod. xvi. 92.) Her husband died in b. c. 326 ; and after the death of her brother, she was sought in marriage by several of his generals, who thought to strengthen their influence with the Macedonians by a connexion with the sister of Alexander. Leonatus is first mentioned as putting forward a claim to her hand, and he represented to Eumencs that he received a promise of marriage from her. (Plut. Eum. 3.) Perdiccas next attempted to gain her in marriage, and after his death in b. c. 321, her hand was sought by Cassander, Lysimachus, and Antigonus. She refused, however, all these offers; and, anxious to escape from Sardis, where she had been kept for years in a sort of honourable cap­tivity, she readily acceded to proposals from Ptolemy; but, before she could accomplish her de­sign, she was assassinated by order of Antigonus. (Diod. xviii. 23, xx. 37 ; Justin. ix. 6, xiii. 6, xiv. 1; Arrian, ap.'Phot. p. 70, ed. Bekker.)

3. A daughter of Antiochus III. the Great, who married Ptolemy V. Epiphanes (b. c. 193), Coele-Syria being given her as her dowry (Appian, Syr. c. 5 ; Liv. xxxvii. 3), though Antiochus after­wards repudiated any such arrangement. (Polyb. xx viii. 17.)

4. A daughter of the preceding and of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, married her brother Ptolemy VI. Philo-metor. She had a son by him, whom on his

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