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CLEOMBROTUS.

way that, if he adheres in this case to his usual practice of giving the names in chronological order, this Cleomachus would fall much later than the time of Gnesippus. His name was given to a variety of the Ionic a Majore metre. (Hephaestion, xi. p. 62, ed. Gaisford.) [P. S.]

CLEOMBROTUS (KAeo^oros), son of Anaxandrides, king of Sparta, brother of Dorieus and Leonidas, and half-brother of Cleomenes. (Herod, v. 41.) He became regent after the battle of Thermopylae, b.c. 480, for Pleistarchus, infant son of Leonidas, and in this capacity was at the head of the Peloponnesian troops who at the time of the battle of Salamis were engaged in fortifying the isthmus. (Herod, viii. 71.) The work was re­newed in the following spring, till deserted for the commencement of the campaign of Plataea. Whe­ther Cleombrotus was this second time engaged in it cannot be gathered with certainty from'the ex­pression of Herodotus (ix. 10), " that he died shortly after leading home his forces from the Isthmus in consequence of an eclipse of the sun." Yet the date of that eclipse, Oct. 2nd, seems to fix his death to the end of b. c. 480 (thus Mailer, Proleyom. p. 409), nor is the language of Hero­dotus very favourable to Thirl wall's hypothesis, according to which, with Clinton (F. If. ii. p. 209), lie places it early in 479. (Hist, of Greece, ii. p. 328.) He left two sons,—the noted Pausanias, who succeeded him as regent, and Nicornedes.

(Time. i. 107.) [A. Ii. C.]

CLEOMBROTUS I. (KW/ifyoTos), the 23rd king of Sparta, of the Agid line, was the son of Pausanias. lie succeeded his brother agesipolis I. in. the year 380 b. c., and reigned nine years. After the deliverance of Thebes from the domina­tion of Sparta [pelopidas], Cleombrotus was sent into Boeotia, at the head of a Lacedaemonian army, in the spring of b. c. 378, but he only spent six­teen days in the Theban territory without doing any injury, and then returned home, leaving Spho-drias as harmost at Thespiae. On his inarch home his army suffered severely from a storm. His conduct excited much disapprobation at Sparta, and the next two expeditions against Thebes were entrusted to the other king, agesilaus II. In the year 376, on account of the illness of Agesilaus, the command .was restored to Cleombrotus, who again effected nothing, but returned to Sparta in consequence of a slight repulse in the passes of Cithaeron. This created still stronger dissatisfac­tion : a congress of the allies was held at Sparta, and it was resolved to prosecute the war by sea. [chabrias ; pollis.] In the spring of 374, Cleombrotus was sent across the Corinthian gulf into Phocis, which had been invaded by the The-bans, who, however, retreated into Boeotia upon his approach. He remained in Phocis till the year 371, when, in accordance with the policy by which Thebes was excluded from the peace between Athens and Sparta, he was ordered to march into Boeotia. Having avoided Epaminondas, who was guarding the pass of Coroneia, he marched down upon Creusis, which he took, with twelve Theban triremes which were in the harbour; and he then advanced to the plains of Leuctra, where he met the Theban army. He seems to have been desirous of avoiding a battle, though he was superior to the enemy in numbers, but his friends reminded him of the suspicions he had before incurred by his former slowness to act against the Thebans, and

CLEOMEDES.

warned him of the danger of repeating such con­ duct in the present crisis. In accusing Cleombro­ tus of rashness in fighting, Cicero (Off. i. 24) seems to have judged by the result. There was certainly as much hesitation on the other side. In the battle which ensued [epaminondas ; pelopidas] he fought most bravely, and fell mortally wounded, and died shortly after he was carried from the field. According to Diodorus, his fall decided the victory of the Thebans. He was succeeded by his son agesipolis II. (Xen. Hell. v. 4. §§ 14-18, 59, vi. 1. § 1, c. 4. § 15 ; Pint. Pelop. 13, 20-23, Ages. 28; Diod. xv. 51—55 ; Paus. i. 13. § 2, iii. 6. § 1, ix. 13. §§ 2—4; Manso, Sparta, iii. 1. pp. 124, 133, 138, 158.) [P. S.]

CLEOMBROTUS II., the 30th king of Sparta of the Agid line, was of the royal race, though not in the direct male line. He was also the son-in- law of Leonidas II., in whose place he was made king by(the party of Agis IV. about 243 b. c. On the return of Leonidas, Cleombrotus was deposed and banished to Tegea, about 240 b. c. [Aois IV.] He was accompanied into exile by his wife Chei- lonis, through whose intercession with her father his life had been spared, and who is mentioned as a conspicuous example of conjugal affection. He left two sons, Agesipolis and Cleomenes, of whom the former became the father and the latter the guardian of agesipolis III. (Pint. Agis, 11, 16 —18 ; Paus. iii. 6 ; Polyb. iv. 35 ; Manso, Sparta, iii. 1, pp. 284,298.) [P. S,]

CLEOMBROTUS (KAeoVfyoTos), an Aca­demic philosopher of Ambracia, who is said to have thrown himself down from a high wall, after reading the Phaedon of Plato ; not that he had any sufferings to escape from, but that he might ex­change this life for a better. (Callimach. Epigr. 60, ap. Brunck, Anal. i. p. 474, Jacobs, i. p. 226 ; Agath. Schol. Ep. 60. v. 17, ap. Brunck, Anal. iii. p. 59, Jacobs, iv. p. 29 ; Lucian, Philop. 1 •, Cic. pro Scaur, ii. 4, Tusc. i. 34 ; Augustin. de Civ. Dei, i. 22; Fabric. Bill Graec. iii. p. 168.) The disciple of Socrates, whom Plato mentions as being in Aegina when Socrates died, may possibly be the same person. (Phaedon, 2, p. 59, c.) [P. S.]

CLEOMEDES (KAetyo?^), an Athenian, son of Lycomedes, was one of the commanders of the expedition against Melos in b. c. 416. He is men­tioned also by Xenophon as one of the 30 tyrants appointed in b. c. 404. (Thuc. v. 84, &c. ; Xen. Hell. ii. 3. § 2.) Schneicler's conjecture with re­spect to him (adXen. I.e.} is inadmissible. [E.E.]

CLEOMEDES (KAeo^'^s), of the island Astypalaea, an athlete, of whom Pausanias (vi. 9) and Plutarch (Rom. 28) record the following le­gend :—In 01. 72 (b. c. 492) he killed Iccus, his opponent, in a boxing-match, at the Olympic games, and the judges ('EAAa^oSi/ccu) decided that he had been guilty of unfair play, and pu­nished him with the loss of the prize. Stung to madness by the disgrace, he returned to Asty­palaea, and there in his frenzy he shook down the pillar which supported the roof of a boys' school, crushing all who were in it beneath the ruins. The Astypalaeans preparing to stone him, he fled for refuge to the temple of Athena, and got into a chest? which his pursuers, having vainly attempted to open it, at length broke to pieces ; but no Cleomedes was there. They sent accordingly to consult the Delphic oracle, and received the follow­ing answer:—

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