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Baur, Die Ckristliclie Gnosis, Tubing. 1835, 8vo. ; I Dahne, De yvaffei dementis A lea: Hal. 1831, 8vo.; Bp. Raye's Account of the Writings and Opinions of Clement of Alexandria, London, 1835. 8vo.; Da- vidson's Sacred Hermeneutics, Edinb. 1843, 8vo.; • Cave's Historia Literaria, Lond. 1688, fol.; Giese- ler's Text-book of Ecclesiastical History, translated by Cimningham, Philadelph. 1836, 3 vols. 8vo. vol. i.; Euseb. Histor. Eccles. lib. v. et vi., ed. Heinichen, 1827—30, Lips.) [S. D.]
CLEMENS ARRETINUS, a man of Senatorial rank, connected by marriage with the family of Vespasian, and an intimate friend of Domitian, was appointed by Mucianus praefect of the praetorian guards in a. d. 70, a dignity which his father had formerly held under Caligula. (Tac. Ann. iv. 68.) Clemens probably did not hold this command long, and the appointment of Mucianus may have been regarded as altogether void, as Suetonius says (72'6. 6), that Titus was the first senator who was praefect of the praetorians, the office being up to that time filled by a knight. Notwithstanding, however, the friendship of Domitian with Clemens, he was one of the victims of the cruelty of this emperor when he ascended the throne. (Suet.
CLEMENS, A'TRIUS, a friend of the younger Pliny, who has -addressed two of his letters to him. (Ep.\. 10, iv.2.)
CLEMENS, CA'SSIUS, was brought to trial about A. d. 195, for having espoused the side of Niger; but defended himself with such dignitjr and freedom, that Severus, in admiration, not only granted him his life, but allowed him to retain half of his property. (Dion-Cass. Ixxiv. 9.)
CLEMENS, T. FLA'VIUS, was cousin to the emperor Domitian, and his colleague in the consul ship, a. d. 95, and married Doinitilla, also a relation .of Domitian. His father was Flavins Sabinus, the .elder brother of the emperor Vespasian, and his brother Flavius Sabinus, who was put to death by Domitian. (Suet. Domit. 10.) Domitian had des tined the sons of Clemens to succeed him in the em pire, and, changing their original names had called one Vespasian and the other Domitian ; but he sub sequently put Clemens to death during the consul ship of the latter. (Suet. Domit. 15.) Dion Cassius says (1-xvii. 14), that Clemens was put to death on a charge of atheism, for which, he adds, many others who went over to the Jewish opinions were exe cuted. This must imply that he had become a Christian; and for the same reason his wife was banished to Pandataria by Domitian. (Comp. Phi- lostr. A poll. viii. 15 ; Euseb. //. E. iii. 14 ; Hie- ronym. Ep. 27.) To this Clemens in all probabi lity is dedicated the church of St. Clement at Rome, on the Caelian hill, which is believed to have been built originally in the fifth century, although its site is now occupied by a more recent, though very ancient, structure. In the year 1725 Cardinal Annibal Albani found under this church an inscription in honour of Flavins Clemens, mar tyr, which is described in a work called T. Flami Clementis Viri Consularis et Martyris Tumulus illustrates, Urbino, 1727. Some connect him with the author of the Epistle to the Corinthians. [clemens romanus.]" [G.E. L.C.]
tution of the emperor Antoninus: "Paetumeifl," Clemens aiebat imperatorem Antoninum consti-tuisse." (Dig. 40. tit. 7. s. 21. § 1.) The name Antoninus is exceedingly ambiguous, as it belongs to Pius, Marcus, L. Verus, Commodns, Caracalla.. Geta, Diadumenus, and Elagabalus ; but in the compilations of Justinian, the name Antoninus, without addition, refers either to Caracalla, M. An-relius, or Pius—usually to the first; to the second, if used by a jurist who lived earlier than Caracalln, and not earlier than Marcus; to the third, if used by a jurist who was living under Pius. (Zimmern, R. R. G* i. p, 184, n. 8.) Here it probably denotes Pius, of whom Pactumeius Clemens may be supposed to have been a contemporary. [J. T. G.j
CLEMENS ROMANUS, was bishop of Rome at the end of the first century, lie 5s probably the same as the Clement whom St. Paul mentions (Phil. iv. 3) as one of "his fcllo-v workers, whose names are in the Book of Life/' To Clement are ascribed two epistles addivsscd to the Corinthian Church, and both probably genuine, the first certainly so. From the style of the second, Neander (Kirchenycsch. iii. p. 1100) considers it as a fragment of a sermon rather than an epistle. The first was occasioned by the divisions which distracted the Church of Corinth, where certain presbyters had been unjustly deposed. The exhortations to unity are enforced by examples from Scripture, and in addition to these are mentioned the martyrdoms of St. Peter and St. Paul. Of the latter it is said, that he went evrl to rtpua Trjs Sinews—a passage which has been considered to favour the supposition that the apostle executed the intention of visiting Spain, which he mentions, Rom. xv. 24.
The epistle seems to contain an important interpolation (§ 40, &c.). In these chapters is suddenly introduced, in the midst of practical exhortations, a laboured comparison between the Jewish priesthood and Christian ministry, and the theory of the former is transferred to the latter. This style of speaking savours in itself of a later age, and is opposed to the rest of the epistle, which uniformly speaks of the church and its offices in their simplest form and relations. The whole tone of both epistles is meek, pious, and Christian, though they are not free from that tendency to find types in greater number than the practice of Scripture warrants, which the later fathers carried to so extravagant a length. Thus, when Rahab is quoted as an example of faith and hospitality, the fact of her hanging a scarlet thread from her window is made to typify our redemption through Christ's blood. In the midst of much that is wise and good we arc surprised to find the fable of the phoenix adduced in support of the resurrection of the bodjr.
As one of the very earliest apostolical fathers, the authority of Clement is valuable in proving the authenticity of certain books of the New Testament. The parts of it to which he refers are the gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke, the epistle of St. James, the first of St. Peter, and several of St. Paul, while from the epistle to the Hebrews he quotes so often, that by some its authorship has been attributed to him. Two passages are quoted ^i.. § 46, and ,ii. § 4) with the formula ytyp&nrat, which do not occur in Scripture ; we also find reference to the apocryphal books of Wisdom and Judith ; a traditionary conversation is