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CLEMENS.

Doubtless great allowance should be made for tlis education and circumstances of the writer, the character of the age in which he lived, the persons for whom chiefly he wrote, the modes of thought then current, the entire circle of influences by which he was surrounded, the principal object he had in view ; but after all deductions, much theological knowledge will not be attributed to him. The speculative philosopher is still more prominent than the theologian—the allegoriser rather than the expounder of the Bible appears—the metaphy­sician eclipses the Christian.

The works of Clement which have reached us are his Aoyos UporpeTrnKOS Trpos 'EAA^z/as or Hor­tatory Address to the Greeks ; naiSaycaytis, or Teacher; 2rpw/zare?y, or Miscellanies; and Tis 6 <rw£*o,uevos ILVoi^crios ; Quis Dives safoetur? In addition to these, he wrote "TTroTvircocreis in eight books ; Ttepl rou ITacrxa, i. e. de Paschate ; nepl NTjo-Tefas, i. e. de Jejunio ; ircpl KaraA.aA.ias-, i. e. de Obtrectatione ; FLpoTpeirTiKos els teTiro(j.ovriv, i. e. Ejchortatio ad Patientiam; Kavwv ^EKKXfjcriacrriKos, L e. Canon EcdesiasticMS, or de Canonibus Ecclesias-ticis; els tt\v Tipo^r^v 'A/zws, On the Prophet Amos; Trept Hpoz/oias and?/Opoi 5ia(jbopot. If the v'iroTVTraxrzis be the same as the Aduinbrationes mentioned by Cassiodorus, as is probable, various fragments of them are preserved and may be seen in Potter's edition. Perhaps the eK\ojal ex t&v irpofyyriK&i', which are also given by Potter, were originally a part of the vTrorviruffets. Among the fragments printed in the same edition are also €K rtov ®eo5oroy teal rrjs dvaroXtKrls /caA.ou-juey^s SiSaerKaAias /card tovs OuaAeimfoy XP°VOVS 4irtTOjjt.ai, i. e. extracts from the writings of Theo-dotus and the doctrine called oriental, relating to the times of Valentinus. Whether these excerpts were really made by Clement admits of doubt, though Sylburg remarks that the style and phrase­ology resemble those of the Alexandrine father. The fragments of his lost works have been indus­triously collected by Potter, in the second volume of his edition of Clement's works; but Fabricius, at the end of his second volume of the works of Hippolytus, published some of the fragments more fully, along witli several not found in Potter's edi­tion. There are also fragments in the Biblioth. Pair, of Galland. In various parts of his writings Clement speaks of other works which he had written or intended to write. (See Potter, vol. ii. p. 1045.)

His three principal works constitute parts of a whole. In the Hortatory Address his design was to convince the Heathens and to convert them to Christianity. It exposes the impurities of poly­theism as contrasted with the spirituality of Chris­tianity, and demonstrates the superiority of the gospel to the philosophy of the Gentile world by shewing, that it effectually purifies the motives and elevates the character. The Paedagogue takes up the new convert at the point to which he is supposed to have been brought by th,e hortatory address, and furnishes him with rules for the regu­lation of his conduct. In the first chapter he explains what he means by the term Paedagogue,— one who instructs children, leading them up to manhood through the paths of truth. This pre­ceptor is none other than Jesus Christ, and the children whom he trains up are simple, sincere believers. The author goes into minutiae and trifling details, instead of dwelling upon great

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CLEMENS.

precepts applicable to human life in all circum­stances. The Stromata are in eight books, but probably the last book did not proceed from Clement himself. The treatise is rambling and discursive, without system, order, or method, but contains much valuable information on many points of antiquity, particularly the history of philosophy. The principal information respecting Egyptian hieroglyphics is contained in the fifth book of this work of Clement. His object was to delineate in it the perfect Christian or Gnostic, after he had been instructed by the Teacher and thus prepared for su­blime speculations in philosophy and theology. The eighth book is a treatise on logic, so that the original seems to have been lost, and this one substituted in its place. Bishop Kaye, however,, inclines to the opinion, that it is a genuine production of Clement. The treatise entitled tis 6 cro>£"olue*'os is practical, shewing to what temptations the rich are par­ticularly exposed. It has the appearance of a homily. His Hypotyposes in eight books (vttotv-iruxreLs, translated adumbrationes by Cassiodorus) contained, according to Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. iv. 14)? a summary exposition of the books of Scripture. Photius gives a most unfavourable account of it, affirming that it contained many fabulous and im­pious notions similar to those of the Gnostic heretics. But at the same time he suggests, that these monstrous sentiments may not have pro­ceeded from Clement, as there is nothing similar to them in his acknowledged works. Most pro­bably they were interpolated.

The following are the chief editions of Clement's works :—Victorii, Florentiae, 3 550, fol., Graece. This is the editio princeps. Frid. Sylburgii, Hei­delberg, 1592, fol. Gr. et Lat. Herveti, " Pro-trepticus et Paedagogus," et Strozzae libri viii. "• Stromatum," Florent. 1551, fol. Lat. Herveti, " Protrepticus, Paedagogus, et Stromata," Basil. 1556, fol. and 1566, fol., Paris, 1572 and 1590, fol. in the Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. iii. 1677, fol. Lugd. Sylburgii et Heinsii, Lugd. Bat. 1616, fol. Gr. et Lat.; this edition was reprinted with the additional notes of Ducaeus at Paris, 1629, fol., Paris, 1641, fol. and Colon. 1688, fol. Potteri, Oxoii. 1715, fol. 2 vols. Gr. et Lat.; this edition is incompara­bly the best. Oberthiir, Wirceb. 1788—89, 8vo.

3 vols. Gr. et Lat. Klotz, Lips. 1830—34, 8vo.

4 vols. Graece. A. B. Cailleau, in the " Collec-tio selecta SS. Ecclesiae Patrum," Paris, 1827 &c., vol. iv. 8vo. Lat. The treatise " Quis Dives sal vet ur" was published in Greek and Latin, with a commentary by Segaar, Traj. 1816, 8vo.; and in Latin ty Dr. H. Olshausen, Regiom. 1831, 12mo. The Hymn to Christ the Saviour at the end of the Paedagogus, was published in Greek and Latin by Piper, Goetting. 1835, 8vo.

(See Le Nourry's Apparatus ad Bibl. maxim. Patrum, Paris, 1703, fol. lib. iii.; P. H. de Groot, De Clem. Alexandr. Disp. Groning. 1826, 8vo. ; H. E. F. Guerike, Comment. Histor. et Theolog. de Schola, quae Alexandriae floruit, Catechetica, Halae, 1824-25, 8vo.; Matter, Essai histor. sur VEcole d?Alexandrie, Paris, 1820, 2 vols. 8vo.; Redepen-ning, Origines, Bonn, 1841, 8vo.; Neander, De Fidei Gnoseosque Ideae, qua ad se invicem aique ad PhilosopMam referatur ratione secundum mentem Clementis A lex., Heidelb. 1811, 8vo.; Allgemeine Gesch. der Christ. Religion und Kirche, i. 3, Ham­burg, 1827, 8vo.; Guerike, Handbuch der Kirchen-geschichte, f'unfte Aujlage, 2 vols. Halle, 1843, 8vo.;

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