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lash ol Aristophanes. Thus the Clouds are said to take the form of women when they see him (Nub. 354); and in the Thesmophoriazusae (574, &c.) he brings information to the women, as being a particular friend of theirs, that Euripides has smuggled in Mnesilochus among them as a spy. In spite of his character lie appears to have been appointed on one occasion to the sacred office of frecopos. (Vesp. 1187.) The Scholiast on Acli. 118 and Eq. 1371 says, that, in order to preserve the appearance of youth, he wore no beard, re moving the hair by an application of pitch. (Comp. Elmsl. ad Acli. 118.) [E. E.]
CLEITAGORA (KAemryo'/ja), a lyric poetess, mentioned by Aristophanes in his Wasps (v. 1245), and in his lost play, the Danaids. She is variously represented as a Lacedaemonian, a Thessalian, and a Lesbian. (Schol. in AristopJi. Vesp. 1239, ]245, Lysistr. 1237 ; Suid. Hesych. s. v.} [P. S.]
CLEITARCHUS (KXcirapxos), tyrant of Ere-tria in Euboea. After Plutarchus had been expelled from the tyranny of Eretria by Phocion, B. c. 350, popular government was at first established ; but strong party struggles ensued, in which the adherents of Athens were at length overpowered by those of Macedonia, and Philip then sent Hipponicus, one of his generals, to destroy the walls of Porthmus, the harbour ot Eretria, and to set up Hipparchus, Automedon, and Clei-tarchus as tyrants. (Plut. PJioc, 13 ; Dem. de Cor. §86, Pkilipp. iii. §§ 68, 69.) This was subsequent to the peace between Athens and Philip in B. c. 346, since Demosthenes adduces it as one of the proofs of a breach of the peace on the part of Macedon. (Philipp. iii. § 23.) The tyrants, however, were not suffered to retain their power quietly, for Demosthenes (Philip, iii. § 69) mentions two armaments sent by Philip for their support, at different times, under Eurylochus and Parmenion respectively. Soon after, we find Cleitarchus in sole possession of the government; but he does not seem to have been at open hostility with Athens, though he held Eretria for Philip, for we hear of the Athenians sending ambassadors to request his consent to the arrangement for uniting Euboea under one federative government, having its congress at Chalcis, to which Athens was also to transfer the annual contributions from Oreus and Eretria. Aeschines says, that a talent from Cleitarchus was part of the bribe which he alleges that Demosthenes received for procuring the decree in question. Cleitarchus appears therefore to have come into the above project of Demosthenes and Callias, to whom he would naturally be opposed ; but he thought it perhaps a point gained if he could get rid of the remnant of Athenian influence in Eretria. For the possible motives of Demosthenes, see p. 568, a. The plan, however, seems to have fallen to the ground, and Demosthenes in b. c. 341 carried a decree for an expedition to Euboea with the view of putting down the Macedonian interest in the island. On this, Cleitarchus and Philistides, the tyrant of Oreus, sent ambassadors to Athens to prevent, if possible, the threatened invasion; arid Aeschines, at whose house the envoys were entertained, appears to have supported their cause in the assembly. But the decree was carried into effect, and the command of the armament was given to Phocion, by whom Cleitarchus and Philistides were expelled from their respective cities. (Aeseh. c.
Ct,es. §§ 85—103; Dem. de Cor. p. 252, &c,; Diod. xvi. 74; Plut. Dem. 17.) [E. E.]
CLEITARCHUS (KAefrapxos), son of the his torian Deinon (Plin. //. N. x. 49), accompanied Alexander the Great in his Asiatic expedition, and wrote a history of it. This work has been erroneously supposed by some to have formed the basis of that of Curtius, who is thought to have closely followed, even if he did not translate it. We find Curtius, however, in one passage (ix. 5. § 21) differing from Cleitarchus, and even censuring him for his inaccuracy. Cicero also (de Leg. i. 2) speaks very slightingly of the production in question (rd irepl 'AAe^a^d/joj/), and mentions him again (Brut. 11) as one who, in his account of the death of Themistocles, eked out history with a little dash of romance. Quintilian says (Inst. Or. x. 1), that his ability was greater than his veracity ; and Longinus (de Sublim. § 3; comp. Toup. ad loc.) condemns his style as frivolous and inflated, applying to it the expression of Sophocles, cr/u.iKpo'is <ueV auAiV/cots, QopSzids 5* arep* He is quoted also by Plutarch (Them. 27, Alex. 46). and several times by Pliny, Athenaeus, and Strabo. The Cleitarchus, whose treatise on foreign words (•yAcocrcrai) is frequently referred to by Athenaeus, was a different person from the historian. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. iii. p. 38 ; Voss, de Hist, Grace, p. 90, ed. Westermann.) [E. E.]
CLEITE (KAemj), a daughter of king Merops, and wife of Cyzicus. After the murder of her husband by the Argonauts she hung herself, and the tears of the nymphs, who lamented her death, were changed into the well of the name of Cleite. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 967, 1063, &c.) [L. S.]
CLEITOMACHUS (KAem>>axos), a Carthaginian by birth, and called Hasdrubal in his own language, came to Athens in the 40th year of his age, previously at*least to the year 146 b. c. He there became connected with the founder of the New Academy, the philosopher Carneades, under whose guidance he rose to be one of the most distinguished disciples of this school; but he also studied at the same time the philosophy of the Stoics and Peripatetics. Diogenes Laertius, to whom we are indebted for these notices of the life of Cleitomachus, relates also (iv. 67), that he succeeded Carneades as the head of the Academy on the death of the latter, b. c. 129. (Comp. Steph. Byz. s. v. Ka/>%?]-§&>i>.) He continued to teach at Athens till as late as b. c. Ill, at all events, as Crassus heard him in that year. (Cic. de Oral. i. 11.)
Of his works, which amounted to 400 books (j8t§Aia, Diog. Laert. I. c.), only a few titles are preserved. His main object in writing them was to make known the philosophy of his master Carneades, from whose views he never dissented. Cleitomachus continued to reside at Athens till the end of his life; but he continued to cherish a strong affection for his native country, and when Carthage was taken in B. c. 146, he wrote a work to console his unfortunate countrymen. This work, which Cicero says he had read, was taken from a discourse of Carneades, and was intended to exhibit the consolation which philosophy supplies even under the greatest calamities. (Cic. Tusc. iii. 22.) Cicero seems indeed to have paid a good deal of attention to the works of Cleitomachus, and speaks in high terms of his industry, penetration, and philosophical talent. (Acad. ii. o*,"