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promised that, if Clearchus would bring Iris chief officers to him, he would point out those who had instilled suspicion into him against their country men. Clearchus fell into the snare, and induced four of the generals and twenty of the lochagi to accompany him to the interview. The generals were admitted and arrested, while the other officers, who had remained without, were massacred. Clear chus and his colleagues were sent to the court of Artaxerxes, and, notwithstanding the efforts of the queen-mother, Parysatis, in their favour, were all beheaded, with the exception of Menon, who pe rished by a more lingering death. In this account Xenophon and Ctesias in the main agree ; but from the -latter Plutarch reports besides several apocryphal stories. One of these is, that, while the bodies of the other generals were torn by dogs and birds, a violent wind raised over that of Clear chus a tomb of sand, round which, in a miracu lously short space of time, an overshadowing grove of palm-trees arose ; so that the king repented much when he knew that he had slain a favourite of the gods. (Xen. Anab. i. 1. § 9, 2. § 9, 3. §§ 1—21, 5. §§ 11—17, 6. §§ 1—11, 8. §§ 4—13, ii. 1—6. § 15; Diod. xiv. 12, 22—26 ; Pint. Ar ia*. 8, 18.) [E. E.]
CLEARCHUS (KAeapxos), a citizen of Herac-leia on the Euxine, was recalled from exile by the nobles to aid them in'q-uelling the seditious temper and demands of the people. According to Justin,
he made .an agreement with Mithridates L of
Pontus to betray the city to him on condition, of holding it'under him as governor. But, perceiving apparently that he might make himself master of it without the aid of Mithridates, he not only broke <his agreement with the latter, but seized his person, and compelled him to pay a large sum for his release. Having deserted the oligarchical side, he came forward as the man of the people, obtained from them the command of a body of mercenaries,-and, having got rid of the nobles by murder and banishment, raised himself to the tyranny. He used his power as badly, and with as much cruelty as he had gained it, while, with the very frenzy of arrogance, he assumed publicly the attributes of Zeus, and gave the name of Kepavvos to one of his sons. He lived in constant fear of assassination, against which he guarded in the strictest way. But, in spite of his precautions, he was murdered by Chion and Leon in b. c. 353, after a reign of twelve years. He is said to have been a pupil both of Plato and of Isocrates, the latter of whom asserts that, while he was with him, he was one of the gentlest and most benevolent of men. (Diod. xv. 81, xvi. 36 ; Just. xvi. 4, 5 ; Polyaen. ii. 30 ; Memn. ap. Phot Bihl. 224 ; Pint, de Aleoc. Fort. ii. 5, ad Princ. inerud. 4 ; Theopomp. ap. Ailvm. iii. p. 85; Isocr. Ep. ad Timotli. p. 423, ad fin.; Suid. s. v. KAeap^os ; Wesseling, ad Diod. IL cc. ; Perizon. ad Ad. V. H. ix. 33.) [E. E.]
CLEARCHUS (KAe'apX0*)* of Soli, one of Aristotle's pupils, was the author of a number of works, none of which are extant, on a very great variety of subjects. He seems to have been the same person whom Athenaeus (i. p. 4, a.) calls rpexefteiTr-ro.v, or the diner out. A list of his principal writings is subjoined, all the references which may be found in Vossius (do Hist. Graec. pp. 83, 84, ed. Westermann) being omitted for the sake of brevity:—1. Ban, a biographical work, extending to at least eight books. (See Athen. xii. p. 548, d.)
2. A commentary on Plato's "Thriaeus." (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. iii. p. 95.) 3. HXaruvos eyKaijjuov. (Diog. Laert. iii. 2.) 4. TItpl tuv kv ttj TlKdravos IIoAiTeici uaQtinariKc/os elpy/iJLtvwv. 5. TepyiQtos, a treatise on flattery, so called, according to Athe naeus (vi. p. 255), from Gergithius, one of Alexan der's courtiers. 6. TLepl TraiSetcts. (Diog. Laert. i. 9 ; Athen. xv. p. 697, e.) 7. Tlepl $i\ias. 8. Uapot/j,iai. 9. Tlepl ypi(po0v, on riddles. 10. 'EpcoTi/ca, probably historical, a collection of love- stories, not unmixed with the discussion of some very odd questions on the subject (e. a. Atheri. xii. p. 553, f.). 11. Ilepi ypaqxuv, on paintings. (Athen. xiv. p. 648, f.) 12. Ueprypcupai ? The reading in Athenaeus (vii. ad init) is doubtful ; see Dalechamp and Casaubon, ad loc. 13. Ilepl vdpKrjs, on the Torpedo. 14. Ilepi rav efuSpow, on water-animals. 15. Ilepl 9-ivdof, on sand-wastes. 16. TItpl (T/ceAeTwi/, an anatomical work. (Casaub. ad Athen. ix. p. 399.) 17. flepi uttj/ou, the genuineness of which, however, has been called in question. (Fabr. Bibl. Graec. iii. p. 481.) This is the work to which Clement of Alexandria refers (Strom. i. 15) for the account of the philosophical Jew, with whom Aristotle was said to have held much communication, and therein, by his own con fession, to have gained more than he imparted. It has been doubted also whether the work on mill-' tary tactics referred to by Aelianus Tacticus (eh, 1) should be ascribed to the present Clearchus or to the tyrant of Heracleia, (See Voss, L c. ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. iii. p. 481.) [E. E.]
CLEARCHUS (KAeapxos), an Athenian comic poet of the new comedy, whose time is unknown. Fragments are preserved from his Ki6apq>$6s (Athen. x. p. 426, a., xiv. p. 623, c.), KopivQiot (xiv. p. 613, b.), Tldvdpoffos (xiv. p. 642, b.), and from a play, the title of which is unknown, (i. p. 28, e.; Eustath. ad Odyss. p. 1623, 47 ; Meine' e, Com. Graec. i. p. 490, iv. pp. 562, 84.9.) [P. S.j
CLEARCHUS, a sculptor in bronze at Rhe- gium, is important as the teacher of the celebrated Pythagoras, who flourished at the time of Myron and Polycletus. Clearchus was the pupil of the Corinthian Eucheir, and belongs probably to the 72nd and following Olympiads. The whole pedi gree of the school to which he is to be ascribed is given by Pausanias. (vi. 4. § 2. Coinp. Heyne5 Opusc. A cad. v. p. 371.) [L. U.]
CLEARIDAS(KAeapt5as), a friend of Brasidas, and apparently one of those young men whose appointment to foreign governments Thucydides considers to have been inconsistent with Spartan principles (iv. 132). He was made governor of Amphipolis by Brasidas ; and in the battle there, in which Brasidas and Cleon were killed, he com manded the main body of the forces, b. c. 422. Clearidas afterwards distinguished himself in the quarrels which arose after the peace of Nicias, by giving up Amphipolis, not (as the terms required) to the Athenians, but to the Amphipolitans them selves. (Thuc. v. 10, 21, 34.) [A. H. C.]
CLEDONIUS, the author of an essay upon Latin grammar, published by Putschius from a single corrupt and imperfect MS., inscribed " Ars Cledonii Romani Senatoris, Constantinopolitani Grammatici." It is professedly a commentary on the celebrated treatise of Donatus, and to suit the arrangement of that work is divided into two parts, the former, or ars prima, containing illustrations of the Editio Prima; the latter, or ars.