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CLAUBIANUS.

We have as yet said nothing of the Rape of Proserpine, from which we might expect to form the most favourable estimate of his genius, for here at least it had fair and free scope, untrammeled by the fetters which cramped its energies in panegyric. But, although these causes of embarrassment are removed, we do not find the result anticipated. If we become familiar with his other works in the first instance, we rise with a feeling of disappoint­ment from the perusal of this. We find, it is true, the same animated descriptions and harmonious numbers ; but there is a want of taste in the ar­rangement of the details, of sustained interest in the action, and of combination in the different members, which gives a fragmentary character to the whole, and causes it to be read with much greater pleasure in extracts than continuously. The subject, although grand in itself, is injudi­ciously handled ; for, all the characters being gods, it is impossible to invest their proceedings with the interest which attaches to struggling and suf­fering humanity. The impression produced by the commencement is singularly unfortunate. The rage of the King of Shades that he alone of gods is a stranger to matrimonial bliss, his determina­tion to war against heaven that he may avenge his wrongs, the mustering and marshalling of the Titans and all the monsters of the abyss for battle against Jupiter, are figured forth with great dignity and pomp ; but when we find this terrific tem­pest at once quelled by the very simple and sensi­ble suggestion of old Lachesis, that he might pro­bably obtain a wife, if he chose to ask for one, the whole scene is converted into a burlesque, and the absurdity is if possible heightened by the bluster­ing harangue of Pluto to the herald, Mercury. Throughout this poem, as well as in all the other works of Clauclian. we lament the absence not only of true sublimity but of simple nature and of real feeling : our imagination is often excited, our intel­lect is often gratified; but our nobler energies are never awakened; no cord of tenderness is struck, no kindly sympathy is enlisted; our hearts are never softened.

Of the Idylls we need hardly say anything ; little could be expected from the subjects : they may be regarded as clever essays in versification, and nothing more. The best is that in which the hot springs of Apontis are described. The Fescen-nine verses display considerable lightness and grace; .the epigrams, with the exception of a very few which are neatly and pointedly expressed, are not worth reading.

The Editio Princeps of Claudian was printed at Vicenza by Jacobus Dusenius, fol., 1482, under the editorial inspection of Barnabus Celsanus, and appears to be a faithful representation of the MS. from which it was taken. Several of the smaller poems are wanting. The second edition was printed at Parma by Angelus Ugoletus, 4to.,1493, superintended by Thadaeus, who made use of several MSS. for emending the text, especially one obtained from Holland. Here first we find the epigrams, the Epithalamium of Palladius and Se-rena, the epistles to Serena and to Hadrian, the Aponus, and. the Gigantomachia. The edition printed at Vienna by Hieronynms Victor and Jo­annes Singrenius, 4to., 1510, with a text newly revised by Joannes Gamers, is the first which con­tains the Laudes Herculis, In Sirenas, Laus Christi, and Miracula Christi. The first truly critical edi-

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CLAUDIUS.

tion was that of Theod. Pulmannus, printed at Antwerp by Plantinus, 16mo., 1571, including the notes of Delrio. The second edition of Caspar Barthius, Francf. and Hamburg. 1650 and 1654, 4to., boasts of being completed with the aid of seventeen MSS., and is accompanied by a volu­minous commentary; but the notes are heavy, and the typography very incorrect. The edition of Gesner, Lips. 1759, is a useful one; but by far the best which has yet appeared, is that of the younger Burmann, Amst. 1760, forming one of the series of the Dutch Variorum Classics, in 4to. An edition was commenced by G. L. Konig, and one volume published in 1808 (Getting.), but the work did not proceed farther.

The " Raptus Proserpinae" was published sepa­rately, under the title " Claudiani de Raptu Pro-serpinae Tragoediae duae," at Utrecht, by Ketelaer and Leempt, apparently several years before the Editio Princeps of the collected works noticed above, and three other editions of the same poem belong to the same early period, although neither the names of the printers nor the precise dates can be ascertained.

We have a complete metrical translation of the whole works of Claudian by A. Hawkins, 2 vols. 8vo., Lond. 1817 ; and there are also several Eng­ lish translations of many of the separate pieces, few of which are of any merit. [W. R.]

CLAUDIANUS (K\av$iav6s), the author of five epigrams in the Greek Anthology (Brunck, Anal. ii. p. 447; Jacobs, iii. p. 153), is commonly identified with the celebrated Latin poet of the same name; but this seems to be disproved by the titles and contents of two additional epigrams, as­ cribed to him in the Vatican MS,, which are ad­ dressed " to the Saviour," and which shew that their author was a Christian. (Jacobs, Paralip.a'p.AnthoL Greece, xiii. pp. 615—617.) He is probably the poet whom Evagrius (flist. EccL i. 19) mentions as flourishing, under Theodosius II., who reigned A. d. 408—450. The Gigantomachia^ of which a fragment still exists (Iriarte, Catal. MSS. Matrit. p. 215), and which has been ascribed to the Roman poet, seems rather to belong to this one. He wrote also, according to the Scholia on the Vatican MS., poems on the history of certain cities of Asia Minor and Syria, Trdrpia Taptfou, 5Ara£"ap§ot>, B^pvrov, Ni/caias, whence it has been inferred that he was a native of that part of Asia. (Jacobs, Antli. Graec. xiii. p. 872.) [P. S.]

CLAUDIANUS ECDIDIUS MAMERf US. [mamertus,]

CLAUDIUS, patrician. [claudia gens.]

1. app. claudius sabinus regillensis, a Sabine of the town of Regiilum or Regilli, who in his own country bore the name of Attus Clausus (or, according to some, A.tta Claudius; Dionysius calls him Tiros KAauSios), being the advocate of peace with the Romans, when hostilities broke out between the two nations shortly after the begin­ning of the commonwealth, and being vehemently opposed by most of his countrymen, withdrew with a large train of followers to Rome. (jb. c. 504.) He was forthwith received into the ranks of the patricians, and lands beyond the Anio were as­signed to his followers, who were formed into a new tribe, called the Claudian. (Liv. ii. 16, iv. 3, x. 8; Dionys. v. 40, xi. 15; Sue ton. Tib. 1; Tac. Ann. xi. 24, xii. 25 ; Niebuhr, i. p. 560.) He exhibited the characteristics which marked his

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