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CLAUDIA.

4. claudia [Stemma, No. 30], daughter of App. Claudius Pulcher [No. 25], was one of the vestal virgins. (Cic. pro Caelio, 14; Val. Max. v. 4. §6.)

5. claudia [Stemma, No. 31], sister of No. 4, was married to Tib. Gracchus. (Plut. Tib. Gracck. i.)

6. claudia [Stemma, No. 37], daughter of C. Claudius Pulcher [No. 29], married Q. Marcius Philippus. (Cic. pro Dom. 32.)

7. clodia [Stemma, No. 41], eldest sister of P. Clodius Pulcher, the enemy of Cicero (Cic. ad Fain. i. 9), married Q. Marcius Rex. (Pint. Cic. 29; Dion Cass. xxxv. 17.) She is said to have been debauched by her brother Publius. (Plut. Cic. 29 ; Cic. ad Fain. i. 9.) For a discussion respecting the number of sisters Clodius had, see Drumann, vol. ii. p. 374, &c.

8. clodia [Stemma, No. 42], the second of the three sisters of P. Clodius, and older than her bro­ther. (Cic. pro Cael. 15.) She was married to Q. Me-telltis Celer, but became infamous for her debauch­eries (Cic. I.e. 14), which so destroyed all domestic peace, that, as Cicero says (ad Att. ii. 1), she was at open war with her husband, and, on his sudden death, she was suspected of having poisoned him. During her husband's lifetime she had wished to form a connexion with Cicero, and, being slighted by him, revenged herself by exciting her brother Publius against him, and during his exile anno3^ed his famity. (Pro Cael. 20, ad Att. ii. 12 ; Plut. Cic.

29.) Among her paramours was M. Caelius, who

after a time left her. To revenge herself, she insti­gated Atratinus to charge him with having borrowed money of her to hire assassins to murder Dio, the head of the embassy sent by Ptolemaeus Auletes, and with having attempted to poison Clodia herself. Crassus and Cicero spoke in defence of Caelius, who was acquitted. Cicero in his speech repre­sents Clodia as a woman of most abandoned cha­racter, and charges her with having carried on an incestuous intrigue with her brother Publius. (Pro Cael. 14—20, 32.) The nickname Quadrantaria was often applied to her. (Pro Cael. 26 ; Quintil. viii. 6. § 53.) Cicero in his letters frequently calls her BowTrts. (Ad Alt. ii. 9, 12, 14.) Either this Clodia, or her youngest sister, was alive in b. c. 44. (Ad Att. xiv. 8.)

9. clodia [Stemma, No. 43], the youngest sister of P. Clodius, was married to L. Licinius Lucullus, before his election to the consulship in b. c. 74. (Plut. Lucull 21, 34, 38; Varr. R. R. iii. 16. § 1.) After his return from the Mithri-datic war, Lucullus separated from her, on account of her infidelity, and in b.c. 61 brought her to trial for an incestuous amour with her brother P. Clo­dius. (Plut. Lucull. 34, 38 ; Cic. pro Mil. 27, ad Fam. i. 9.)

10. claudia [Stemma, No. 44], daughter of App. Claudius Pulcher [No. 38], was married to Cn. Pompeius, the elder son of the triumvir. (Cic. ad Fam. ii. 13, iii. 4, 11; Dion Cass. xxxix. 60.)

11. claudia [Stemma, No. 45), sister of the preceding, was married to M. Brutus, who sepa­rated from her in b. c. 45. (Cic. ad Fam. iii. 4, ad Att. xiii. 9, 10, Brut. 77, 94.)

12. clodia [Stemma, No. 49], daughter of P. Clodius, was betrothed in B. c. 43 to Octavianus (Augustus), who, however, never regarded her as his wife, and at the outbreak of the Perusinian war sent her back to her mother Fulvia. (Suet. Aug. 62; Dion Cass. xlviii. 5.)

CLAUDIANUS.

13. claudia pulchra, lived in the reign of Tiberius. In A. d. 26, to prepare the way for the accusation of Agrippina, she was brought to trial by Domitius Aper, and convicted of adultery, poi­soning, and conspiracy against the emperor. (Tac. Ann. iv. 52; Dion Cass. lix. 19.) She is the last member of this family whose name occurs in his­tory.

14. claudia, called by Suetonius (Calig. 12) junia claudilla, was the daughter of M. Junius Silanus, and was married to Caligula, according to Dion Cassius (Iviii. 25) in a. d. 35. (Tac. Ann. vi. 20, 45.)

15. claudia, daughter of the emperor Clau­dius I. by his wife Plautia Urgulanilla. (Suet. Claud. 27.)

16. claudia, an illegitimate daughter of Plau­tia Urgulanilla, the wife of the emperor Claudius I. and his freedman Boter (Suet. Claud. 27), was ex­posed by the command of Claudius.

17. claudia augusta, daughter of the em­ peror Nero by his wife Poppaea Sabina. She died young. (Suet: Ner. 35.') [C. P. M.]

CLAUDIA, daughter of Crispus the brother of Claudius Gothicus, wife of Eutropius, mother of Constantius, and grandmother of Constantine the Great. (Trebell. Poll. Claud. 13.) [W. R.]

CLAUDIA GENS, patrician and plebeian. The patrician Claudii were of Sabine origin., and came to Rome in b. c. 5Q4, when they were receiv­ed among the patricians. [claudius, No. 1.] The patrician Claudii bear various surnames, as Caecu.% Caudeoe, Centho, Crassus^ Pulcher, Regiilensis, and Sabinus, the two latter of which, though applicable to all of the gens, were seldom used, when there was also a more definite cognomen. But as these surnames did not mark distinct families, an ac­count of all the patrician Claudii is given under claudius, with the exception of those with the cognomen nero, since they are better known under the latter name.

The surnames of the plebeian Claudii are asellus, canina, centumalus, cicero, fla-ment, and marcellus, of which the last is by far the most celebrated.

The patrician Claudii were noted for their pride and arrogance, and intense hatred of the com­ monalty. " That house during the course of cen­ turies produced several very eminent, few great men ; hardly a single noble-minded one. In all ages it distinguished itself alike by a spirit1 of haughty defiance, by disdain for the laws, and iron hardness of heart." (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 599.) The praenomen Lucius was avoided after two of that name had dishonoured it, the one by robbery, the other by murder. (Sueton. Tib. ].) The honours and public offices borne by members of this gens are enumerated by Suetonius. (/. c.) During the republic no patrician Claudius adopted one of another gens: the emperor Claudius was the first who broke through this custom by adopt­ ing L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, afterwards the emperor Nero. (Suet. Claud. 39 ; Tac. Ann. xii. 25.) [C. P. M.]

CLAUDIANUS, CLAU'DIUS, the last of the Latin classic poets, flourished under Theodosius and his sons Arcadius and Honorius. Our know­ledge of his personal history is very limited. That he was a native of Alexandria seems to be satis­factorily established from the direct testimony of Suidas, corroborated by an allusion in Sidonius

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